POLI 343 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Indian Independence Movement
SchoolUniversity of Calgary
Course CodePOLI 343
ProfessorMaureen Sharon Hiebert
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Ireland was repeatedly invaded by England since medieval times and
formally annexed by the UK in 1603
It was considered in the UK as much a part of their country as any of
the others, but in Ireland there had been chronic resistance to British
control ever since then
Significant Irish nationalism began to develop in the 1890s,
culminating in a bloody but unsuccessful uprising in 1916 that
attempted to separate from the UK and side with Germany in the war.
The occupation was extremely repressive and resented by the Irish,
who in 1918 elected a separatist party to parliament which
immediately separated from the UK, this time waging a two year long
guerilla war in order to separate.
In 1921, the British agreed to acknowledge Ireland as a dominion
with independence in its domestic affairs and some elements of
foreign policy, ending the war and beginning the Empire’s
At the time, it included modern day India, Pakistan and
In return for its contributions during the war, the UK promised
India eventual self-governance. Many provincial powers were
given over to India in 1919, but Britain retained control over
most national aspects of government.
Arguably the most important part of the empire after Great
British textile production dropped in the postwar
depression, though, and at the same time Mohandas
Gandhi’s independence movement called for Indians to
boycott British textiles and weave their own cloth.
§The initiative was a huge success, devastating a British
industry that depended on the protectionist system of the
empire to remain competitive ballooning
§Huge anti-British protests, especially in the 30’s when
Gandhi’s movement truly gained momentum.
§More than 60 000 were arrested for civil disobedience in
It housed the vast majority of the empire’s population,
considerable natural resources, and by virtue of sheer mass
was one of the most important markets for British exports,
especially cloth, before the war
Indian Independence Movement
Thursday,+ February+ 25,+2016
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