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Lecture 1

SOCI 333 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Primitive Communism, Surplus Product, Productive Forces


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 333
Professor
Dean Curran
Lecture
1

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Aim$of$making$claims$that$apply$beyond$specific$cases
General$and$abstract
Used$to$explain$and$understand
Criticisms:$Abstraction$distorts$reality,$empirical$must$be$attached
Theory:$based$on$interpretation$rather$than$empirical$ info
What%is%theory?
Ontology:$What$there$is
Normativity:$Questioning$what$should$be
3%Concepts
Did$not$use$term$'sociologist'$
All$action$=$social$action
§
Social$Analysis:$in$terms$of$collections$of$individuals
Historical:$Course$of$change
Material:$Everyday$life
Historical$Materialism
Primitive$communism,$ancient,$feudal,$capitalist,$communism
Modes$of$Production
Tools/techniques
Exchange$value$comes$from$the$labor
Forces$of$Production
Who$controls/owns$the$means$of$production/labour$power
Control$determines$class$relations
Surplus$production$controlled$by$small$minority
Social$Relations$of$Production
Totalizing$theory$of$society:$context$determine$life$conditions
Atomistically$built$from$individuals
Hobbes
Marx
Mode%of%
Production
Forces%of%
Production
Social%Relation
Primitive$
Communim
Undeveloped No$divisions,$all$collectiv
Ancet Simple Labour/tools$owned$by$masters
Feudal Some$development$ Tools$owned$by$lord,$labour$unfree
Capitalist Advanced Capital$owned$by$bourgeosie,$labour$
doubly$free
Communism Advanced No$divisions,$all$use$means$of$production
Ideas$are$expressions$of$dominant$relationships
Ideology:$Ruling$class$ideals$form$intellectual$force/production$of$ideas
Relations$of$production$'fit'$existing$forces$of$production
Productive$forces$develop$to$the$extent$that$future$progress$is$impeded
Different$stages$of$history
Contradictions$between$forces$of$production$&$social$relations
Dialectical$ result:$Emerging$class$drives$a$change$in$relations$of$production,$do$
not$impede$productive$potential$of$society
E.g.$Feudal$labour$had$to$be$freed$from$bondage$to$work$in$factories,$increased$
production
E.g.$Capitalist$ownership$creates$gap$between$productive$power$of$
society/actuality,$so$much$shift$to$communism$to$increase$production
Dialetics
Natural$state$of$human$beings$is$to$objectify$abilities
Occurs$through$labour$-interaction$between$society$&$nature
"By$thus$acting$on$the$external$world$and$changing$it,$he$at$the$same$time$
changes$his$own$nature.$
Human$<->$nature$=$humanized$nature
Homo%Faber
Productive$lfe$should$be$a$free,$conscious$activity
"Externalization$of$the$worker$into$his$product$does$not$only$mean$that$his$work$
becomes$an$object,$and$external$existence,$but$that$it$exists$outside$him$
independently,$as$something$alien$to$him,$confronting$him$as$an$autonomous$
power$.$It$means$that$the$life$which$he$has$given$to$the$object$confronts$him$as$
something$hostile$and$alien.$
Alienated$labour$=$producing$something$you$do$not$control
Alienation$=$relationship$of$exploitation
Alienation: Relationship$in$which$someone$creates$something$but$then$no$longer$
controls$it.$
(1)$Marx$Review
Monday,$January$11,$2016
1:34$PM
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