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Jenning ch.3.doc

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University of Guelph
ANTH 3650
Edward Hedican

Jennings Chapter 3: Early sites give evidence of human presence - use of objects/artifacts to prove human existence - only few “sites” can be identified as ancient Evidence Before 12000 P.P - oldest evidence of human presence is the Old Crow Basin at the edge of Beringia (Yukon Territory) - was a vast lake from 30,000B.P - once was plentiful of big game and other food source animals - animal bones present - tool made of caribou bone recovered (27,000 yrs B.P) - tool found to be not as old & dismissed with no antiquity - doubt about whole site & bones found b/c of transportation through water paths over years Blue Fish Caves I & II - no debate about artifacts found here b/c of undisturbed layers of loess The Chopper Scrapper Treditian - unplaced in time - its relationship cannot be assumed to other cultures - usually a surface find which = no criteria to measure/compare with - significance of the chopper-scraper complexes will one day be fully understood The Early Sites - Meadowcroft Shelter - surface runoff deposits - artifacts found - again, possible question to their actual dates b/c coal can contaminate radio carbon dating - increasing possibility of pre-lithic or pre-Clovis bone tool industry - expediency tools for one time use in butchering game - still uncertain if bone chopper and knife fragments are tools or merely scraps Mexico & South A. - evidence of humans in south @ 12,000 BP - Tlapacoya Site in Mexico - oldest - fire places and food bones, evidence of extinct mega fauna - evidence is scanty and viewed skeptically by some After 12,000 BP: The Classic Paleo-Indians - Paleo-Indian -> great age & ancestral relationship - widely accepted term - this stage began when the most available big game was a series of now extinct species - latest sites yield modern fauna - earliest stage = Clovis, then -> Foleam & lowest stage = Plano (culture names) - campsites & kill sites very similar in findings of bones and tools - campsites often elevated or on dunes - kill sites of banks of former fossil ponds Clovis -> involved mammoths and one or more clovis fluted points Folsom -> more numerous sites - large harmed extinct bison - pressure flaking - folsom fluted points Plano -> plano diagnostic points are leaf shaped and unfluted - modern fauna at times The Clovis Culture - best known sites are Blackwater draw, New Mexico & Nacolehver Murray Springs trip in South Eastern Arizona - fluting is believed to be only a exclusive NA technique - clovis blade -> curved face, prismatic in cross section derived from a well prepared cone/care - Lehher
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