Use of objects/artifacts to prove human existence. Only few sites can be identified as ancient. Oldest evidence of human presence is the old crow basin at the edge of beringia (yukon territory) Once was plentiful of big game and other food source animals. Tool made of caribou bone recovered (27,000 yrs b. p) Tool found to be not as old & dismissed with no antiquity. Doubt about whole site & bones found b/c of transportation through water paths over years. No debate about artifacts found here b/c of undisturbed layers of loess. Its relationship cannot be assumed to other cultures. Usually a surface find which = no criteria to measure/compare with. Significance of the chopper-scraper complexes will one day be fully understood. Again, possible question to their actual dates b/c coal can contaminate radio carbon dating. Increasing possibility of pre-lithic or pre-clovis bone tool industry. Expediency tools for one time use in butchering game.