Lecture 15- Materials from Plant Fibers.
Fibres that can be spun and woven.
Fibres that are used for sale cloth, for ropes, and fishing line.
Also used to make a type of paper (hemp)- 2000 years ago.
Fibres are found in just about any plant organ
Fibre is a chain of long thin cells that are thread-like with thick lignified walls.
Individual plant fibre under a microscope- it is hollow in the middle, because you have
the plant cell with all the features but you get a secondary cell wall that when it thickens
it kills off all the organelles.
Fiber is made of sclerenchyma cells:
Ground tissue that is imbedded
Sclerids: are sclerenchyma cells that function in structural support in fruits (also known
as stone cells.) (Found in unripe pear)
Fibre cells are elongate; have tough cell walls. - Ground tissue of plant organs. They
can’t break easily (stem) because of the fibre strands in the stem.
Each bundle (the outside) has hollow fibre cells that protect the phloem cells that have
thin cell walls from being damaged.
Cotton has thin fibre while burlap has thick fibre.
Plant fibre vs. animal fiber:
Plant: main component: cellulose animal: protein
Heat treatment: very resistant. very sensitive
Dye: adhere poorly adhere well
Water treatment: great absorbent poor absorbent
Pests: mostly resistant very sensitive
All fibres are not alike:
Most valuable fibres are nearly pure cellulose and white
Lignin and tannin tend to darken fibre, making it less valuable for textiles.
Fibres are classified according to their associated plant organ:
fibers are usually associated with fruits and seeds.
Stem fibres: are soft fibres
Leaf fibres: hard fibres
A fruit fibre for bathing and scrubbing: Leaf fibers are classified as hard fibers:
Leaf fibres are associated with the leaf veins of monocotyledonous plants. Stiff
Bast fibres are classified as soft fibres:
Associated wit the phloem tissue of various dicot stems; these are also known as “phloem
Only found in stem
Leaf fibres are new to the market.
Fibre extraction varies with fibre type:
Ginning: is used to tear surface from the seed coat of cotton seeds.
Take massive cotton lint and feed it to gin which wipes away the debris,
Surface fibers are easily extracted
Bast fibres are extracting by retting:
Retting: is the rotting of soft stem tissue by microbial action, leaving behind fibers.
Forcing the stems to rot after you harvest them, leave the stems out after they are cut,
every morning they are covered in due, and they expand, any microbes present will
Or immerse it into water and it achieves the same process.
Leaf fibres require decortication:
Decortication is used for leaves to scrape away the unwanted tissues and retain fibres.
Bast fiber plants:
Flax: Linum usitatissimum:
Linen is the oldest textile fibre used by humans. - Member of flax family, oldest textile
known. Fibre that is easily woven.
Bast fiber from stem tissue that can be woven.
Naturally this stem does not have branches just stem and leaves.
The true origins of flax remain unknown:
Grown in Canada and Russia best is from Ireland and France
Straight slender stems support sessile gray leaves and bell shaped flowers.
Fruit is known as a boll (a capsule with 10 seeds)
The term linen and genus name lignum is derived from the Latin line.
Linen was used by Egyptian priests, royalty and for wrapping mummies.
Linen is derived from flax stem ph