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Lecture 5

ENVS 4012 Lecture 5: ENVSweek5

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Environmental Sciences
ENVS 4012
Kim Bolton

ENVS Week 5 Assignment 2- Analysis of a Meal • Due: Monday, March 27 Worth 25% of grade Try to expand and research things you made yourself (not a can of soup for example), and beverages Questions/Issues might include: • Where are the ingredients produced? How far have they travelled? • How are the ingredients produced and distributed? • What kinds of inputs (energy, fertilizer) • Not longer than 2500 words • Write like Michael Pollan • Spend time on your outline before you begin writing • Bibliography of your research sources Format Introduction: • A brief opening statement • An explanation of what food sustainability means to you/what sustainability is • A brief explanation of what you are going to do in the report The Report Body: • Present your research and make a strong argument for the sustainability of your meal • Focus on organization (grouping ingredients) • Include tables and figures • Paragraphs and sub headers • Meal must have at least 5 ingredients • Lets say you use fish that’s not sustainable from Canada, you can substitute it by buying another fish Review: What is a nematicide? • Kills nematodes Name and inorganic pesticide? • Salt made, kaolin clay What is a systemic pesticide? • Has to been ingested or taken up by plant Name a well-known herbicide used in Ontario Name the insecticide lined to pollinator decline • Neonesticide Name two ways of controlling pests that do not involve synthetic pesticides • Non invasive tilling • Biological ways (animals) IPM • Integrated pest management Live Stock Management -add to paper? Non-domestication of animals? Using animal for your own benefit and enslaving them. No problem with hunting wild animals Cows: • Cows are ruminants (multiple stomachs) • 4 compartment stomach • Rumination= chewing their cud -regurgitating from their first two stomachs (rumen and reticulum), masticating them and re-swallowing them to be further digested in the next two stomachs (which are more like our stomachs) • Able to efficiently digest low-grade, fibre based foods • Can convert it into high-protein food for human consumption (that’s why they are good sources for humans) • Teeth are constantly growing Beef: • Breeds: angus, Charolais, Hereford, limousin, simmental • There are an average of 63,000 farms and ranches with beef cattle across Canada • Average number head per beef farm is 61 Beef Production: • Calves are born in the spring (about 80 lbs) • Spend spring, summer and fall with mothers in pasture fields • Farmer ‘interventions’ -vaccination -castration of males -dehorning -branding (only in some parts of country) -ear tagging (Canadian Cattle Identification Program) • Weaned in fall (backgrounders or stocker calves) • Then sold to feedlots and Feedlot: • Calves over-wintered on forage-based diet until 900 lbs • Penned yard for 60 to 200 days -few hundred to 40, 000 animals • Diet initially made up of forages but changed slowly until 90% grain • Finished weight is about 1, 250 lbs Forage: • Means plants consumed by livestock • Includes pasture, baled hay, silage and cereal straw • Basis of Canada’s livestock industry • Forage is important in soil conservation because the soil is always covered -crop rotations to improve soil structure and add nitrogen to soil Types of Forage Plants • Most forage species belong to the grass ad legume families -common grasses include timothy • Add more from courselink Silage: • Green forage crops such as barley and corn • Entire plant is harvested, chopped, packed and allowed to ferment -must have suitable moisture content -sealed up • Anaerobic fermentation preserves nutrients over a long period of time Feedlots: • ‘feed grade grain -Barley and Corn -processed to some degree
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