Low lying areas will be effected first: pei. Storm surges can exacerbate the problem of sea level rise. Our native people tend to be more vulnerable than other canadians. Small island developing states are particularly vulnerable (sids: low-lying coastal countries with sustainable development challenges, small populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, fragile environments etc. In the carribean, atlantic ocean, arabian sea, indian ocean and the pacific ocean. Very little that people in these countries can do to lower carbon emissions. How do we research this information: observational methods. Phenological studies: watching what is happening out in nature. Phenology = periodic biological phenomena that are correlated with climatic conditions: i. e bud formation, flowering, migration. Observe patterns of change over a long period of time and correlate to climate changes (temperature) Recall climate reconstruction examples (analysis of lake sediments for pollen, dendroclimatology) Historical accounts by explorers, settlers etc can provide baseline descriptions of ecological properties.