FRHD 3070 Lecture Notes - Institutional Review Board, Electric Shock, Nuremberg Trials

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Ethics in Research
What is ethics?
The area of moral values
Historical background: scientists in Nazi Germany (WW2)
o Immerse the prisoners in freezing water to see how long they would last, all
for research, “done to advance science”
Nuremberg Trial, scientists need to acquire form consent
Cases of ethical controversy
Tuskegee syphilis study
- ‘Bad blood’ study
- Natural course of syphilis
o Given free treatment, fee meals, when they die money would be given to their
- Penicillin (1940s)
- Infected not treated
Milgrams obedience study
- Obey authority
- Teacher vs. pupil
- Electric shock
Tearoom Trade Study (Humphrey, 1975)
- Public restroom used as a meeting place for homosexual encounters
- Watch queen”
- License #s, wrote down their license plate number.
- Got to their home address and pretended to do a Health survey
What are the risks and benefits?
- No form consent
- Blackmail, wreck their marriage
Sources to Guide Ethical Thinking
- Intuition: gut feeling, ‘doesn’t seem right’
- Knowledge of personal values and beliefs
- past experience
- Observations of others; colleagues
- Ethical rules & codes
- Ethical principles
Ethical principles
1. Respecting autonomy: the idea of being in control of yourself, self-
determination, be in control of your own behavior
- Payment to participants
- Subject pools
- need Informed consent
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