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Lecture 2

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University of Guelph
GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

January 17, 2013- Lecture TA: Kim Stemshorn [email protected] Theories of Urbanization: Measuring and Monitoring How cities Arose in the Global South -Ancient urban civilizations -first were Egypt, Greece, Turkey, China (BC) -later on were Aztec, Inca, Africa etc. (AD) -the part of the world that we consider the Global South now were some of the largest cities in the Year 100-1500 -Colonial presences (colonial cities and gateway cities) -Economic specialization as a development strategy” urban effect -Theories of modern urbanization in the Global South Colonial City Structures -colonialism began in 1492 (a little bit earlier) 1) Newly created cities: Mumbai, Kolkata, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, Manila, Nairobi 2) Adapted cities (adding to existing cities: Delhi, Shanghai, Tunis -adapt, extend, transform -replaced and covered past civilizations; Tenochtitlan and Mexico City -European influence -Functions: colonial administration and commerce, military security, and these exist directly beside indigenous commerce and residence -traditional markets etc. were sustained but colonial influences expand on it and this can be seen in the structure of the city -colonial cities served as centres for European political administration, exercises of discipline and justice, hygiene/sanitation, cultural dissemination, and economic concentration -These were usually trading posts and admin centres, rather than centres of manufacturing and production. When former colonies gained their independence, many of these cities maintained their pre-industrial character, although local citizens were substituted for European administration Colonial architecture Mumbai train station (left side of the screen) -gargoyles -if there weren’t people pulling a cart it would look like a building from Europe Jakarta (right side of screen) -Dutch architecture Gateway Cities -provide connections between regions Economic specialization -historically, agriculture or other types of extractive primary sector economic specialization in the Global South -concentrated export-oriented urban forms -Now, other specialization too: -manufacturing -import substitution (mostly early stage industrialization; mixed results) e.g Indian didn’t want to send cotton to England to be spun just for it to be spent back -production for international markets; export processing zones, maquiladoras, etc. -tourism, and some other tertiary (services, sales) and quinary (R & D) sector specialization A note on urbanization in the Global North -effects of extractive colonization on the cities of the Global North -increased wealth for urban dev. In Europe -historically, urbanization in the Global North accompanied industrialization (not so in many parts of the Global South) Persistence of Indigenous Urbanism -not all urban systems in the Global South are relics of colonialism: -China -North Africa -Parts of the Middle East Theories of Urban Growth in the Global South (Potter and Lloyd-Evans, 1998) 1) Classical-traditional approaches -dualistic economic structures (underdeveloped indigenous sector and modern developed sector) -Prescription is “modernization” and “polarization reversal” (trickle-down) -Perceived need to invest in economic “take-off” -investing money in infrastructure, industrial manufacturing -multiple tones of this approach 2) Historical approaches: -teleological explanations for urban structure and resulting polarizat
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