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Lecture 3

GEO 3050 Week 3 Zawahri.docx

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University of Guelph
GEOG 3050
Kate Parizeau

GEO 3050 Week 3 - Zawahri 2011 Improving access to potable water and sanitation in developing countries is an integral part of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). · Sought to halve the proportion of the world’s population living in poverty, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat major diseases, increase gender equality, provide universal primary education, form a global partnership for development an improve environmental sustainability. · Under improving environmental sustainability, Target 10 sought to halve the amount of people worldwide without adequate access to safe drinking water and safe sanitation. o In order to monitor the progress of Target 10, the UN created the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation between UNICEF and WHO. o The JMP has claimed that, with a few exceptions, the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) is on track to meet these goals. § However, these current assessment techniques are overstate coverage rates, while not adequately capturing the context to which water is unsafe and sanitation inadequate. Water, Health and Development in the MENA: · The failure to provide people with safe drinking water and basic sanitation is estimated to contribute to approximately 3.5 million deaths/year, and is responsible for 60% of infant mortality. · The UN has concluded that improved water quality and sanitation is the most critical component of reducing infant and child mortality. · Waterborne diseases affect family income not only through the decrease in economic productivity of the sick member, but also through increasing costs of official and unofficial healthcare. · These diseases also have a direct impact of anywhere from 0.5-2.5% of national GDP in countries such as Iran, Morocco, Jordan, the Gaza Strip and Lebanon. · A $1 investment by the government in water and sanitation is estimated by experts to have an $8 rate of return. o This is because safe water and sanitation underpin achieving MDGs related to poverty, health, schooling and gender equality. · MENA contains 5% of the worlds population, but has less than 1% of the world’s freshwater. · Salinity has also affected numerous basins in many countries, rendering them unusable. o Climate change is also predicted to decrease the amount of freshwater available. · Population growth combined with increased living standards, especially in urban areas, generates increased flows of wastewater, that, without proper treatment degrades freshwater quality. Measuring Progress: JMP Methods: · Two measures: o proportion of using an improved drinking water source o proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility. · This data is collected by surveys from the JMP, asking respondents where they get there water from. Conditions are said to be “improved” if they are getting their water from pipes in their house, public pipes, boreholes, protected wells, protected springs and rainwater collection. · The JMP also added questions asking of households used their own treatment processes once they had obtained the water, but admitted that these questions still did not give an adequate picture of the quality of drinking water. · To address this, JMP started doing Rapid Assessments of Drinking- Water Quality (RADWQ) in 6 countries
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