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Hist11 Europe at War II.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Christine Ekholst
Semester
Fall

Description
Oct.  11,  2012   Early  Modern  World   Europe  at  War  II   Midterm     Primary  Sources   • Who,  what,  when,  where,  why?   • Impact  upon  others   Thirty  Years  War  (1618-­‐1648)   Holy  Roman  Empire   • 1555,  Peace  of  Augsburg     o Allowed  ruler  to  decide  religion  of  his  region   o Balance  between  Protestants  and  Catholics  achieved,  divided  but   peaceful   o Did  not  deal  with  Calvinism   • Rise  of  Calvinism   o No  right  to  practice  in  the  Holy  Roman  Empire   • Austrian  Hapsburgs  enforcing  Catholicism   • Hapsburgs   o Spanish  and  Austrian  Hapsburgs  lands   • Bohemians  were  Hussites,  area  strongly  Protestant   • Different  parts  had  own  cultures  and  languages     • Ferdinand  I,  Maxmillian  II,  Rudolf,  Mathias  all  politiques   • Maxmillian  II-­‐>  Jesuits,  crucial  in  Catholic  identity,  Counter-­‐Reformation   o Duty  to  suppress  Protestantism  in  their  areas   • Prague  strongly  Protestant,  Protestant  nobles  demanded  right  to  be   Protestant   Ferdinand  II  (1619-­‐1637)   • Devout  Catholic,  did  not  honor  agreement  to  increase  Protestants  rights   • Reduced  Protestants  rights   1618,  Defenestration  of  Prague   • Protestants  demanded  rights,  held  a  trial,  convicted  them  and  threw  out   Ferdinand’s  officials  the  window   o Landed  in  pile  of  garbage  and  survived   • Fenestra=  Window   Frederick  I  (119-­‐1620)   • Protestants  elected  Frederick  V  of  Palatine   • King  of  Bohemia  (Fredrick  I,  1619-­‐1620)   • Wife,  Elizabeth,  James  I  of  England’s  daughter   o Pushed  husband  to  make  this  decision-­‐  not  true-­‐  propaganda  to  blame   her     • Calvinist   • Ferdinand  II  strikes  back,  Spain’s  support   Spain  and  the  Netherlands,  1609  Twelve  Year  Truce   • Low  Countries   o United  provinces   o Spanish  Netherlands   • Waited  till  twelve  year  truce,  invaded  Netherlands,  what  Ferdinand  II  offered   in  order  for  their  support   “The  Empire  Strikes  Back”  Ferdinand  II   • Battle  of  White  Mountain,  1620   o Won   • Spain  and  the  Netherlands   o Also  fought  in  the  New  World,  Dutch  vs.  Spanish  ships   • Spanish  troops  encircling  France,  enemies   • Ferdinand  II  punished  Bohemia,  killed  thousands,  ransacked  Prague   • Suppressed  Calvinism   • Protestants  joining  forces,  collaborating   Christian  IV  Denmark-­‐Norway   • Protestant  leader   • Protestant-­‐German  states  joined  in:  Denmark-­‐Norway,  German  states,   Netherlands,  England,  France   Commander  Albrecht  von  Wallenstein   • Born  Protestant,  converted  to  Catholicism   • Him  and  his  130  000  men  defeated  Danes  (Protestant)   o Series  of  Catholic  victories   • Claimed  All  land  that  had  been  captured  would  return  to  Catholicism,  no   worship  of  Calvinism     • Ferdinand  had  to  fire  him  multiple  times  and
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