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Hist17 Research Paper and Eastern Europe.pdf

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University of Guelph
HIST 1010
Christine Ekholst

Nov. 8, 2012 Research Paper Structure • Section I o Intro o Annotated bibliography  Title and everything required, immediately after the description (brief) • Description: “this source states, this author argues, this author claims” • Introduction- if include economic perspective->description should include economic perspectives as well • Section II o Historiography  Expand on what wrote before- more detail in what articles/chapters said • How the authors argue their case- what primary sources are they using? • Do sources argue different things? Different perspectives/primary sources? • Look at beginning/end of articles/chapters/books o Look at what they are going to claim and what they’re using o How many footnotes: more is better  Better to overcite than undercite • Keep track of where you get their information from • Reconnect with primary source you have- do not have to analyze source in detail- put source into bigger picture o Background and articles- recognize arguments in source itself • Section III,10% o Your interpretation  First person  “I feel, I think”- weak  “in my opinion this is the strongest argument because the author uses so many different sources- logic of it” explain why you believe the author is right Eastern Europe Russia, Austria, and Prussia Russia Ivan the IV, “The Terrible” • feared and admired at the same time • new group of nobles- states servants based upon merits • death- “time of troubles” Time of Troubles • Ivan sacred of conspiracies- had assassinated highest nobles (boyars) o Country in period of unrest • Old nobles and new state servants joined forces to elect new tsar: Michal Romanov (r. 1613-1645) • Didn’t limit royal power- led to development of absolutism • Romanov- strengthened nobles- privileges and granted land- excluded taxes and duties (required to work a number of days or had to pay the nobles) • 1649, new law tied peasants to the land Peter the Great (1682-1725) • Gifted leader- willing to learn by observation Peter the Great was actually: very tall • Set out to expand Russia- saw the greatness of his country reflected in territorial gains • Russia at war with his borders every year except for one • At war constantly- warrior king- fought in wars as well • In order to achieve greatness- needed to learn form western countries • Orthodox church- western but separated from it • Russia had one foot in asia and the other in Europe • Culturally diferent than European countries- saw country as backwards • Westernization of Russia • Willing to learn and observe- travelled to Europe to gain knowledge on how rulers organized states- disguised- certainly knew he was a king- didn’t have to provide ceremonies/ treat him as royalty • Avoided prolonged rituals surrounding court at the time • Re-fashioned Russian society- “cultural revolution” • 1697-98- group of nobles started a rebellion- repressed brutally- tortured and executed leader( 1000 executed) o Taming the westernizing nobles o Clashed with aristocracy on a umber of different issues- forced to shave off long beards and forced to cut off long sleeves of jackets and shirts (both of these traits of Russian culture- Westernized appearance) o Required nobles would be educated • Table of Ranks o Based upon marriage than hereditary rights o Chose his advisors not based upon highest rank • Needed education o Changed educational system in Russia (schools and colleges- military and technological training)  Printing press in Moscow- first newspaper published o Cultural achievement- St. Petersburg • St. Petersburg o On the coast unlike Moscow that was inland o Facing west rather than east o Famous for art and architecture, constructed in 18 century o Modern European city- wide avenues and palaces • One goal: aimed for military expansion and gain land • Wanted access to the sea, Black Sea and Baltic Sea (St. Petersburg) Wars of Peter the Great • Ottoman empire lost power to Russia o War with both the Persians and Hapsburgs in Austria o Set on a campaign against the Hapsburgs- besieged Vienna- defeated  Internal factions- failed to create reforms necessary to become a strong empire  Decline of the Ottonans • 1696- captured Axov o Access to Ottomans o Success for him • 1697 o travelled to Europe
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