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HIST 2600 (61)

jan 20 2014.docx

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University of Guelph
HIST 2600
Rebecca Beausaert

Week 3: Lecture 1 Urbanization and Industrialization 1. early economic systems and the reciprocity treaty of 1854 a. Canada was not an industrialized nation b. Technically industrializing begun in 1967 but we weren’t industrialized c. Localized and consisted of small industries d. In 1867thS and britian were well ahead of us in industriathzation e. As 19 century progresses and we head into early 20 century, Canada is evolving from being pre-industrial, rural and agrarian into an increasingly urban and industrial one f. When Canada was a mercantilist trading economy—back when Canada was part of britian i. Lots of government intervention ii. High tariffs on goods iii. Britian acquiring colonies and expanding trade iv. Old system th th v. Late 18 , early 19 —economists (adam smith) argue for a new economic system based on free trade 1. Would allow britian to expand its markets 2. And cultivate an internal trade system based on goods being manufactured at home 3. No longer relying on colonies for their goods—they start manufacturing locally g. Move to a free trade system in mid 19 century i. Reciprocity treaty 1854 1. Signed between Britian and the US 2. Allows canada (british northAmerica at this time) to establish trade treaties south of the border 3. Removes tariffs from a variety of goods produced on the continent 4. Emphasized building of a continental system of trade base don manufacturing finished goods rather than exporting raw goods 5. Forces Canada to modernize its economic structure h. Want fast cheap goods—propelling early Canadian manufacturers to set up operations i. Later 1850s-60s see early industrial activity focused in central Canada (Ontario and quebec) due to population and great lakes water system— providing water power and transportation 2. early industrial years a. traditional economies are continuing—prairies see agricultural dominating, and east coast sees ship building and fisheries b. factors that amp up industrialization i. transportation system (railways, canals) ii. foreign investment c. welland canal, 1829 d. in 1850, only little bit of track had been laid e. Canada is behind f. Investors are leery and shy about investing in a Canadian railway system i. Railways are expensive ii. No certainty they would be profitable g. 1860s see confederation impending—investors have big ideas about potential in Canada for industrial production h. canal (shipping canals) key for moving goods along the water i. transportation systems are key because they reduce transportation cost i. goods can be moved faster, costs less to get them ii. close the distance between producers, manufacturers and consumers j. foreign investment i. in later 19 century, Canada has to rely on foreign investment for economic growth ii. needed for expensive projects—hydro electric system, railway, etc iii. Britain and US provide foreign investment k. industrial revolution in canada i. great advances in machinery and technology ii. changes framework for production and leads to factory system iii. wasn’t exactly revolutionary, but does change the way people lived in work, gradually iv. prior to industrial revolution, most work (craft work) is done in small shops near the home v. factory system (industrial capitalism)—small work is transferred to the factory vi. work that was once done by hand, cant be managed anymore and turns to the factory system vii. skilled tradesmen become deskilled when their skill enters the factory due to mechanization viii. machines are replacing skills 3. industrial labour pool and factory owners a. provides workers with
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