Hist*3130 Popular Culture and Punishment
Week 2B – Lecture 3 England, 1688 - 1785 (Thurs. Sept. 12, 2013)
- Succession of war in Britain (one war after the other)
o How ppl dealt with order & disorder
o How they transitioned into modernity
The Glorious Revolution (1688-9) -> change in dynasty
- Charles II died in 1685 leaving no heirs. As a result, the throne passed to his
brother James II.
- James’ wife gave birth to a son, this created a problem because it created the
possibility of another Christian monarch.
- Considered politicians responded by inviting William of Orange to accept the
throne with Mary (James II’s daughter)
- 1689 – James II lost his throne to William and Mary (she wasn’t a Catholic,
but a Protestant)
- significance Because of the demands of parliament put them into power.
- Established parliament should meet every year, and member elected every
o Major moment in which Parliament was deciding the term
- the civil war set the conflict (monarchy vs parliament) in motion and 1688
resolved the situation.
- In England, the English were very proud and saw themselves as absolute
rulers - > a lot of this was propaganda
Scotland: A Problematic Union
- The two crowns had been united in 1603 (James I became King of both
nations) but it wasn’t a complete union of the two countries.
- The origins of Britain was dated to 1707
- Scottish nobility left everything they had and as a result Britain and Scotland
- The Union increased Scotland’s financial standing; the scots were hugely
resented in England. That anti-Scottish feeling is remaining even after the
union. -> the Scots were a “thorn” to the sides of the British
- Large numbers of Scottish nobility wanted to return to the house of Stuarts
not Hanoverians (Protestants).
- Scottish rebellions attempted to put the rightful monarchs (decedents of King
James II) back to the throne
- After 1746, the Jacobites (supports of the Stuart monarchy) cause died out.
o The British freaked out about the Scottish because of the Jacobite
The American Revolution (1775-1783)
- The Revolution impacted Britain by:
1) Interrupting the flow of criminals – criminals were sent to the N.
American colonies, they were sold of servants, Britain wanted to Hist*3130 Popular Culture and Punishment
get rid of their criminals. But this trade ended because of Naval
blockades. Eventually, when the American revolution ended they
sending the criminals to Australian colonies. It stopped a lot of
transport between Britain and America.
2) Causing a demobilization – anytime a war ends, there is a period of
mayhem in the city (no work for soldiers, disabled, had no place in
society) and so they all returned to Britain. This was called a
demobilization crisis. This happens every time a war ends.
- Other 18 Century demobilization crisis:
1) early 1750s following the War of Austrian Succession
2) early 1760s following the Seven Years War
Turnpike destruction in Bristol
Smuggling in Southern Coast -> smugglers supported from community. This goes to
show that Crime is only prosecuted when it serves the people.
- characterizations of demobilization
The ability of 18 Century people in dealing with crime -> with no police force, a
lot of people just turned a blind eye. If it impacted a crime wave, they could create
their own police service. Society was a face to face society, there was no police force
and a lot of the prosecution of crime relied on the vigilantism and people. 1829
London creates police force
The Gordon Riots (1780)
- By the 1770s, Parliament had begun to repeal several anti-Catholic statutes
through the Catholic Relief Acts (1778) to encourage and English and
Scottish Catholics to enlist in the army.
- Lord George Gordon, MP for Wilshire, became embroiled in the
accompanying anti-Catholic settlement – demanded th