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Lecture 3

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HIST 3130
Ashley Mathisen

HIST 3130 Lecture 3 Sept 12, 2013 England 1688-1785: - 18 century was a period of war in Britain The Glorious Revolution 1688-1689: - Charles 2 died leaving no heirs, throne was based to his brother james 2 - James was overtly Catholic which became a problem o Series of military battles ensued - James 2 was forced into exile and Mary (his daughter) and her husband ( William 3) ruled jointly for about a decade - Parliament was able to make many demands, they were in a position of power which is what makes the glorious revolution significant - Revolution settled that the new monarch had to be the same religion as the church of England - Finished what the English civil war had begun in the 17 century - This set them apart from france, where monarch ruled absolutely, o The English had parliament as well - They loved this because they felt it set them above because the people had a voice as well ( in theory) Scotland: A problematic Union - Unified in 1707, Great Britain was created - Union increased Scotland financial standing - Scots were resented in England - Many in scotland refused to be involved in the English system at all - Ann became Queen after Mary, when she died house went to someone from a German House of Dynasty, lost the Scottish connection o Many wanted it to go back to the house of Stewart - 1715 and 1745 were Scottish rebellions (Jacobite rebellions) - after the defeat of the Scots at Culloden in 1746, the Jacobite cause died out o focused on internal expansion, trading, commerce, education, and medicine - but England still distrusted them The American Revolution (1775-1783): - another source of anxiety to the English - The Revolution impacted Britain by: o interrupting the flow of criminals
  couldn’t be sent anywhere  stopped a lot of transport between Britain and North America  keep them on ships in the Thames o causing a demobilization crisis  troops returned to cities  disabled, unemployed, had no place  caused a crime wave ( possibly) Elements of disorder (reading for this week) for demobilization - smuggling o hard to punish people who were accepted o a lot of smuggling was accepted because it helped the people - jacobite sympathizers - empire distruption - Other 18th-century demobilization crises: o early 1750s following the War of the Austrian Succession
 o early 1760s following the Seven Years War The Gordon Riots 1780: - By the 1770s, parliament had begun to repeal several anti-Catholic statutes through the Catholic Relief Acts - Lord George Gordon, MP for Wiltshire, became embroiled in the accompanying anti-Catholic sentiment - On June 2, 1780, Gordon petitioned parliament to repeal the Relief Act - Over the next few days, riots ensued in London. Catholic property was destroyed and Newgate Prison was set on fire ( after 100s of prisoners were released) - Dispute about class and religion - Enlightenment thinkers promoted learning, civilization, and progress, actively distancing themselves from the religious wars of the early modern era. - In Britain, the Enlightenment was fueled by the liberal atmosphere that prevailed in the wake of the Glorious Revolution (1688/9) and the Hanoverian succession (1714). - Progress was a main theme of the enlightenment - Also get away from the wars of the 16 -18 centuries - Liberal society already in place which made the values of the enlightenment easier to accept Vehicles and Venues of the Enlightenment: - The lapse of the Licensing Act in 1695 created an explosion of printed material - 2.5 million newspapers were sold annually in Britain in 1
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