HROB 2090 Lecture 8: *HROB- Chapter 8

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2090

1. HROB- Chapter 8 Social Influence in Organizations • As a result of social influence, people often feel or act differently from how they would as independent operators. • This is because in many social settings, and especially in groups, people are highly dependent on others. • This dependence sets the stage for influence to occur. • Two kinds of dependence are information dependence and effect dependence. Information Dependence • Reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act. • Information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via the signals they send to us. • This process is explained by social information processing theory. Social Information Processing Theory • Organizational members use information from others to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours. • The effects of social information can be very strong, often exerting as much or more influence over others as objective reality. • Individual behaviour is influenced and shaped by others. Effect Dependence • Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. • The group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act. • Group members desire the approval of the group. • These circumstances promote effect dependence. • Managers have many rewards and punishments available (e.g., promotions, raises, assignment of favourable tasks). • Effects available to co-workers include praise, friendship, and a helping hand on the job. • Lack of cooperation might result in nagging, harassment, name calling, or social isolation. The Social Influence Process and Conformity • One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group. • There are three different motives for social conformity: • Compliance • Identification • Internalization Compliance • Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment. • Compliance is the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms. • It primarily involves effect dependence. Identification • Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself. • Information dependence is especially important. • If someone is basically similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person for information about how to think and act. Internalization • Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. • Conformity occurs because it is seen as right, not because it achieves rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases others. • Conformity is due to internal, rather than external forces. The Social Influence Process and Conformity (continued) • Simple compliance can set the stage for more complete identification and involvement with organizational norms and roles. • The process through which this occurs in organizations is known as organizational socialization. Organizational Socialization • Socialization is the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization. • It is a learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge, change their attitudes, and perform new behaviours. • It is the primary means by which organizations communicate the organization’s culture and values to new members. • Socialization methods influence immediate or proximal outcomes which lead to more distal or longer-term outcomes. The Socialization Process Organizational Socialization (continued) • Learning during socialization involves four main content areas or domains of learning: – Task – Role – Work group – Organization • One of the goals of socialization is to provide new hires with information and knowledge about their role to avoid problems of role conflict and role ambiguity. • An important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit. • There are three kinds of fit that are important for socialization: – Person-job fit (PJ fit) – Person-organization fit (PO fit) – Person-group fit (PG fit) • Person-job (PJ) fit refers to the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job. • Person-organization (PO) fit refers to the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization. • Person-group (PG) fit refers to the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of his/her work group. • PJ and PO fit are strongly influenced by the socialization process and are related to job attitudes and behaviours. • An important outcome of socialization is organizational identification. • Organizational identification refers to the extent to which an individual defines him- or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent. • It reflects an individual’s learning and acceptance of an organization’s culture. • The socialization process occurs before organization membership formally begins as well as once new members enter the organization. • Socialization is an on-going process by virtue of continuous interaction with others in the organization. • It is most potent during certain periods of membership transition. Stages of Socialization • Socialization is an ongoing process that involves three stages. • One of the stages occurs before entry, another immediately after entry, and the last occurs after one has been a member for some period of time. • The first two stages represent hurdles for achieving passage into the third stage. Anticipatory Socialization • Socialization that takes place before a person becomes a member of a particular organization. • Includes formal and informal experiences. • Organizations vary in the extent to which they encourage anticipatory socialization. • Not all anticipatory socialization is accurate and useful for the new member. Encounter • The new recruit encounters day-to-day reality of organ
More Less

Related notes for HROB 2090

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.