1. Chapter 8 Continued – Social Influence, Socialization,
and Organizational Culture
Recap: The Socialization Process
• The manner in which organizations structure the early work
experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from
one role to another.
• There are six socialization tactics.
• They can be grouped into two separate patterns of socialization that
are called institutionalized socialization and individualized
• Institutionalization socialization consists of the collective, formal,
sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics.
• A formalized and structured program of socialization that reduces
uncertainty and encourages new hires to accept organizational norms
and maintain the status quo. Individualized Socialization
• Individualized socialization consists of the individual, informal,
random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture tactics.
• A relative absence of structure that creates ambiguity and encourages
new hires to question the status quo and develop their own approach
to their role.
Socialization Tactics (continued)
• The tactics have also been distinguished in terms of:
– The context in which information is presented to new hires
– The content provided to new hires
– The social aspects of socialization
Collective versus Individual Tactics
• When using the collective tactic, a number of new members are
socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing
the same challenges.
• The individual tactic consists of socialization experiences that are
tailor-made for each new member.
Formal versus Informal Tactics
• The formal tactic involves segregating newcomers from regular
organizational members and providing them with formal learning
experiences. • Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from more
experienced members and rely more on informal and on-the-job
Sequential versus Random Tactics
• With a sequential tactic, there is a fixed sequence of steps or stages
leading to the assumption of the role.
• With the random tactic, there is an ambiguous or changing sequence
Fixed versus Variable Tactics
• With a fixed tactic, there is a timetable for the newcomers’
assumption of the role.
• If the tactic is variable, there is no time frame to indicate when the
socialization process ends and the newcomer assumes his or her new
Serial versus Disjunctive Tactics
• The serial tactic refers to a process in which newcomers are socialized
by experienced members of the organization.
• The disjunctive tactic refers to a socialization process where role
models and experienced organization members do not groom new
members or “show them the ropes.”
Investiture versus Divestiture Tactics
• The divestiture tactic involves experiences that are designed to
humble new hires and strip away some of their initial self-confidence.
• The investiture tactic affirms the incoming identity and attributes of
new hires rather than denying and stripping them away. Socialization Tactics (continued)
• Why would an organization chose institutionalized over individualized
• Institutionalization socialization tactics are effective in promoting
organizational loyalty and uniformity of behaviour.
• When socialization is individualized, new members are more likely to
take on the particular characteristics and style of those who are
• Uniformity is less likely with individualized socialization.
• Institutionalized socialization is always followed up by some
individualized socialization as the member joins his or her regular
Socialization Tactics: Research Evidence
• Institutionalization socialization tactics have been found to be related
to proximal and distal outcomes:
– Lower role ambiguity and role conflict
– More positive PJ and PO fit perceptions
– More positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment
– Lower stress and turnover
– A more custodial role orientation
• Individualized socialization tactics result in a more innovative role
orientation in which new recruits might change or modify the way
they perform their tasks and roles.
• The social tactics (serial-disjunctive and investiture-divestiture) have
been found to be the most strongly related to socialization outcomes. Mentoring
• A mentor is an experienced or more senior person in the organization
who provides a junior person guidance and special attention, such as
giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the
early stages of his/her career.
• Mentoring is a type of developmental relationship that produces
benefits for a protégé’s work and/or career.
• For mentors to be effective, they must perform two types of
• Career functions
• Psychosocial functions
Career Functions of Mentoring
• The career functions of mentoring provide career-enhancing benefits
– Exposure and visibility
– Coaching and feedback
– Developmental assignments
Psychosocial Functions of Mentoring
• The psychosocial functions help develop the newcomer’s self-
confidence, sense of identity, and ability to cope with emotional
traumas that can damage a person’s effectiveness. They include:
– Role modelling
– Provide acceptance and confirmation
– Counselling Formal Mentoring Programs
• Mentoring relationships have often been informal without the direct
involvement of the organization.
• Formal mentoring programs are organizationally sponsored programs
in which seasoned employees are recruited as mentors and matched
• They have become increasingly popular and are now provided by
• Groups of people who take an active interest in and actions toward
advancing a protégé’s career by providing developmental assistance.
• A protégé can have multiple developers from inside and outside of the
organization and include people from different hierarchical