MBG lecture 3 notes.docx

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Molecular Biology and Genetics
MBG 1000
Georgevander Merwe

MBG lecture 2 The normal karyotype - Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes - 23 diploid chromosomes o Paired chromosomes 1-22 o 2 sex chromosomes (xx or xy) - Diploid = 2 sets of each chromosome (2n) - Haploid gametes = one set of each chromosome Stages of human life cycle - Genes orchestrate our physiology conception through adulthood - Development = process of forming adult from single celled zygote - In humans o New individuals form from the union of sex cells (or gametes) o Sperm from male and oocyte from female form zygote (fertiliezed oocyte) Germ layers - Endoderm - Mesoderm - Ectoderm - Cell division, growth and specialization produce an embryo Formation of ovaries and testes - 1. 28 day gestation age (GA) - 2. Primordial germ cells (PCG’s) lie in endoderm of yolk sack - 3. Migrate to genital ridges in the foetus - 4. PCG’s + foetal cells = primitive streak gonad - 5. Cell division and dif
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