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NUTR 3210 (233)
Lecture 20

NUTR 3210 Lecture 20: summary of micronutrients

7 Pages
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Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
David Mutch

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Name
Function
Sex
Susceptible
Deficiency
Overdose
correction
Iodine (I-)
Creates T3 and T4
No particular
sex is more
susceptible
than the
other
People located
away from water,
iodine is very
soluable.
Problem in
dvlping world
-Growth and developmental
abnormalities
-goiter(can become thyroid
cancer)
-cretinism fetus doesn’t dvlp
properly)
-mental retardation
-poor growth stunting
No such thing, body
can correct the
amount of TSH that is
released
-goiter needs to
be removed
-cretinism is
irreversible
Vitamin A
(retinoids, B
carotene)
Related to night
vision
-bacteria entering
skin
Men need
more
1.night blindness(rhodopsin)
2.impaired epithelial cell
differentiation
3.impaired growth
4.impaired fertility
5.fetal dvlpment defects
6.abcteria can penetrate skin
due to a lack of mucous
-Fetal dvlp can occur
when too much Vit A
-liver cell death cells
take in excess vit A
and expand and lyse,
causes hepatocytes
to become damaged
and die
Carotenoids
prevent
deficiceny,
don’t cause
toxicity
(converted to
retinols)
Vitamin D
(converted to
VitD3)
Acts as a true steroid
hormone
-responds to low
blood calcium
(maintaining blood
ca2+ is more
important than bone)
Adults = 600
IU
-rickets (infants)
-if 25 OH D low, sign of
deficiency
-osteomalacia (adolescents
to adults)
-osteoporosis (middle aged
to elderly)
-cant get it from sun
exposure
-ppl with Vit D intake
>10,000 or more / day
for several months
-food is fortified with
vit D now
-take both Vit
D3 and Ca2+
supplements
Calcium (Ca2+)
More important to
have ca in blood than
bone
Higher in
women
-profoundly affects bone and
muscle
- calcitrol secreted when
body is deficnet in calcium,
causes bones to be broken
down
-constipation,
bloating and or gas
-kidney stones
-calcitonin is secreted
when Ca levels in
blood are too high,
bones start
mineralizing and Ca is
excreted in urine
-take
supplements
Phosphorus
2nd most abundant
mineral in body
neither
Very rare
Very rate
-
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
(70% organic
phosphate, 30%
HPO4-)
Fluoride (F-)
Not essential,
function is to effect
mineralization of
teeth and bones
-10mg/day
-increased incidence of tooth
decay
-fluorosis (mottling of
teeth)
-
-move
somewhere
where they
don’t put it into
the water :D
GUELPH
NIACIN
(VITAMIN B3)
-produced in liver
from Trp
-digestion of NAD &
NADP needed to
absorb niacin
-boosts good HDL
cholesterol
-lowers bad LDL
cholesterol and TAGs
-reforming
glutathione
requires both niacin
(NAD)
and riboflavin (FAD)
-14/16mg/day
NE adult
women/men
N/A
-pellagra
-dermatitis, demetia,
diarrhea, death
-reversible
-liver damage
-GIT problems
-glucose intolerance
DEFICIENCY
- corn (bound
not absorbed)
so use lime from
limestone to
release B3 from
corn
-
recommendatio
ns:
-niacin
equivalents
(NE)
-NE = mg
performed
niacin +
mg Trp/60
-from most fish,
meats, breads,
cereals, coffee,
tea
RIBOFLAVIN
(VITAMIN B2)
-riboflavin
destroyed by
sunlight (milk in
glass bottles)
- many biochemical
pathways:
-oxidation
-Kreb’s Cycle
-delivery of
electrons to ETC
-requirement:
1.3 mg/day
men and 1.1
mg/day
women
-people with
thyroid disease
(b/c cannot
activate
flavokinase)
Ariboflavinosis:
-appear ~3-4 months
-dietary intake is insufficient
as it is continuously excreted
in the urine
-excess excreted
through urine so N/A
-rich is foods of
animal origin
-milk, milk
products, meat,
etc. (source of
free riboflavin)
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
Name Function Sex Susceptible Deficiency Overdose correction Iodine (I-) Creates T3 and T4 Noparticular Peoplelocated -Growthand developmental Nosuchthing,body -goiter needsto sex ismore awayfromwater, abnormalities can correct the beremoved susceptible iodine isvery -goiter(can becomethyroid amount ofTSHthatis -cretinismis than the soluable. cancer) released irreversible other Problem in -cretinism (fetus doesntdvlp dvlpingworld properly) -mentalretardation -poor growthstunting VitaminA Related tonight Menneed 1.night blindness(rhodopsin) -Fetaldvlpcan occur Carotenoids (retinoids,B vision more 2.impaired epithelialcell when toomuchVitA prevent carotene) -bacteria entering differentiation -liver cell death cellsdeficiceny, skin 3.impaired growth takein excessvit A dont cause 4.impaired fertility and expand and lyse, toxicity 5.fetaldvlpment defects causeshepatocytes (converted to 6.abcteriacanpenetrateskin tobecomedamaged retinols) due toalack ofmucous and die VitaminD Actsasa true steroid Adults=600 -rickets(infants) -cant get itfromsun -takebothVit (converted to hormone IU -if25OHDlow, signof exposure D3and Ca2+ VitD3) -respondstolow deficiency -pplwithVitDintake supplements blood calcium -osteomalacia(adolescents >10,000or more /day (maintaining blood toadults) for severalmonths ca2+ ismore -osteoporosis(middleaged -food isfortified with important than bone) to elderly) vit D now Calcium(Ca2+) More important to Higher in -profoundlyaffectsboneand -constipation, -take have ca in blood than women muscle bloatingand or gas supplements bone -calcitrolsecreted when -kidney stones bodyisdeficnet incalcium, -calcitonin issecreted causesbonestobebroken when Calevelsin down blood aretoohigh, bonesstart mineralizingand Cais excreted inurine nd Phosphorus 2 most abundant neither Veryrare Veryrate - mineral in body(70%organic phosphate, 30% HPO4-) Fluoride (F-) Not essential, -10mg/day -increased incidence oftooth -fluorosis(mottlingof -move function istoeffect decay teeth) somewhere mineralization of - wherethey teeth and bones dont put itinto the water :D GUELPH NIACIN -digestion of NAD & -14/16mg/day N/A -pellagra -liver damage DEFICIENCY (VITAMIN B3) NADP needed to NEadult -dermatitis,demetia, -GIT problems -corn(bound -produced in liver absorb niacin women/men diarrhea,death -glucoseintolerance not absorbed) fromTrp -boosts good HDL -reversible souselimefrom cholesterol limestone to -lowersbad LDL releaseB3from cholesterol and TAGs corn -reforming - glutathione recommendatio requires both niacin ns: (NAD)
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