1B The Making of the Liberal Democratic State
Recognizing Ideological Positions and Categories
• Social cleavages: societal basis of engagement
Ascription (something that youre born into)
• Religion – born into a certain religion
You don’t rationally choose these things, youre born into them.
Social division – Collective identity –Organized (interests?)
Social cleavages can be political cleavages – but some work has to be done
• Other cleavages historically
–Class (acting polictially, and being conscience of class)
• Reinforcing cleavages –
• Crosscutting cleavages
• “a more or less consistent set of beliefs about the nature of society in which individuals live and about the proper role of the state
in establishing or maintaining that society” (Johnston 2009, 133)
• The idea we went from a basis of values set in the will of God to a ratonal explination.
• What we owe eachother is a rational explination.
• Left Right
• Com/Socialist Soc Dem Liberal(Reform/neo) Conser(Tory/neo/soc) •
• role of state
• freedom (neg, pos)
• Dominance of liberalism (the tenients of liberalism) 1. Freedom and liberty
2. Meliorlism (betterment)
4. Egatrainism (equality)
• Karl Marx:
–Bourgeoisie ideas dominate ( our class relations change, out of that ocme culture politics and philosophy)
–Abstracted so that they appear to be universal ( we are all equal. SURE.)
Theyre bourgeoisie freedoms not yours.
• Antonio Gramsci
–Hegemonic ideas, culture (we aren’t corrosed to thinking all those things belonged to us we WANT THEM. WE EMBRACE
THEM BECAUSE THEYRE HEGEMONIC)
• Connection to philosophy
–Ideology is normative (you have an idea of how things should be)
–Partial view of social and political reality (sees things in certain ways)
–May be critical or support the status quo (may be a bit of each)
• But different…..
–Simpler, less abstract, popular, accessible
–Geared to action
–Connected to interests (we try to bring it together it is good for me and it is good for everyone)
• Why does ideology have a negative connotation?
–Cold War rivalry between capitalism and communism in particular brought out negative use of ideology
• All theory has an underlying belief system and to think critical