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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2200
Mark Yanisziewski

November 15th, 2012 Alternatives to the mainstream  War and imperialism affect women differently than men  80% of all refugees were women and children  Abu Ghraib prison - men faced sexual assault  Far more likely that women will be victims of sexual assault and rape in a warzone compared to men  Women assaulted in a deliberate and systematic fashion  Sexual assault as a weapon  Women are much more likely to be coerced to perform sexual acts for food, water, shelter Essentialist Feminists  Women: mothers, compassionate  If we observe behaviour of men and women o We see men act as warriors o Women: mothers  Partly created by difference in socialization: masculine and feminism  Key differences for essentialists is that men and women are biologically different  Biological  socialization  observation  Men masculine warriors  Women feminism  mother  Women create life, biologically predisposed to be more nurturing, and compassionate by nature  Men are isolated from this process, and resentful of ability to give life  Women are more likely to find nonviolent solutions to conflicts because of their nature  If women lead politically environment, less or no war  Essentialists part of Women suffrage movement and early peace movements (especially during time of WWI) o Women's Peace Party was created by Crystal Eastman o Held international women's peace conference (representatives from USA, Europe to Holland) o If women were more pacific, gentle and peaceful,  characteristics a war torn world needed to emphasize o If war is product of men, peace could be product of women Virginal Woolf  Not sure if women are peaceful and pacifist as they say  The way they participated in war or at least in part, had to be seen in the positive light  For first time ever, women entered workforce  Women found the experience liberating, not property of fathers, brothers, husbands Margaret Thatcher, Joanna of Arc, Indri Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto November 15th, 2012  Women participating in war and fighting in war  FARC, Tamil tigers, red army faction (west Germany) o Many prominent roles women have played in combat Liberal feminists  Look at essentialist argument and they say biology is not the cause of the observed behaviour  Socialization plays the key role why men and women are different  Biological differences are constant throughout time (Biology is a cons
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