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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 2300
Tamara Small

POLS 2300: Canadian Government and Politics Week 8 – The Canadian Nation and Identity October 29 , 2012 Nation-State? - State – political construct (America, Canada, etc) o People o Territory o Sovereignty - Nation – A historical community with its own institutions, occupying a given territory or homeland, and sharing a distinct language and culture o Collective sense of belonging o Not defined by what it is but it is defined by what PEOPLE think it is o Self defining - Nation-state or multination o States and nations don’t necessarily overlap o Multination’s are places where you have a state with more than one national group in there (Belgian, Canada?) Canada and Nationhood - Ethnic Nation o The community has distinctive culture and history, the purpose of that nation is to promote that culture o Common ancestry, common language, common tradition, common religion - Civic Nation o Based on citizenship, if you are a citizen than you are a member of the nation Multination & Polyethnic State - Diversity that exists in Canada comes from multinationals, or polyechnic for immigrant groups - National minority – culturally distinct groups that could potentially be self governing, they have been incorporated into the larger state o Involuntary incorporation – either they were concurred or incorporated in a more peaceful manner, no choice, o French/Quebecois o Self-governing rights - should give them the ability to govern themselves - Polyethnic or ethnic groups – immigration, left country of origin to enter into new society, don’t have a homeland, goal is to integrate into society o Don’t want self governing rights or else they would have stayed in their homeland o Eg. Japanese-Canadian or Italian-Canadians o Give polyethnic accommodation rights, express their ethnicity, laws that protect/promote Nationalism - ‘The collective action of a politically conscious ethnic group (or nation) in pursuit of increasing territorial autonomy or sovereignty’ o Self-determination – control over land/people Quebec - “Quebec has become the political expression of French Canada and for all practical purposes the homeland for all whose who speak French in our country” (Jean Lesage) - Blood & Belonging – Reconquering the Conquest – Quebec (1994) Aboriginal People - Aboriginal (refers to all 3 groups) identity population: 1,172,790 (3.3% of Canadian population) o First nations people: 698,025 o Metis: 389,785 o Inuit: 50, 485 - Majority of aboriginal people live in urban centers - Most of first nations live on reserves Colonization - CA 1867 – Section 91 (24): Indians, and Lands reserved for the Indians o The idea that they were considered enumerated in section 91 o Indians were considered fundamentally apart from others o Most colonization been dedicated to civilizing aboriginal people - Indian Act, 1867 o First Indian Act o Purpose to set out the obligations of the federal government (management of money, resources, land) o Attempted to control every aspect of aboriginal peoples lives o The hope was that aboriginals would leave behind their routes and join the broader Canadian society - Residential Schools o Purpose was to civilize aboriginal people o Remove and isolate children from parents and traditions o Put into a dominant culture, mainly religious schools Multination & Polyethnic State - National Minority o Involuntary incorporation o French/Quebecois & Aboriginal Peoples o Self governing rights - Polyethnic or ethnic groups o Immi Constitution Act, 1982 - Section 35 – Rights of the Aboriginal People of Canada o Recognition of existing aboriginal and treaty rights o Land claims agreements o Gender equali
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