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Canada (510,314)
POLS 3470 (45)
Tim Mau (45)

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Political Science
POLS 3470
Tim Mau

NATIONAL POLICY (1879)  THREE PILLARS: o 1) TARIFFS; o 2) RAILWAY; - build country o 3) IMMIGRATION – consume and purchase goods  INDUSTRIAL STRATEGY  CONTRIBUTED TO NATION-BUILDING  DID HAVE SOME NEGATIVE REPERCUSSIONS:  HIGHER COSTS FOR CONSUMERS  UNEQUAL BENEFITS – historic alienation in Western Canada  LOWER REAL INCOMES  BRANCH-PLANT ECONOMY CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE  NATIONAL INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE – PATTERN OF PRODUCTION & DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS & SERVICES IN A GIVEN AREA; INCLUDES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS & CLEAVAGES IN NETWORK OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY  SEVERAL RELEVANT ASPECTS: o BALANCE BETWEEN DIFFERENT SECTORS  Raw materials – refine – manufacture - resell o REGIONAL ECONOMIC DIVISIONS o LEVEL OF FOREIGN OWNERSHIP o DEGREE OF CORPORATE CONCENTRATION  STRUCTURE – STABLE, BUT NOT STATIC o Historically – family controlled companies ie. HBC, Sobeys, Molson, Labatt’s  IMPACT OF STRUCTURE/STRUCTURAL CHANGE o Can lead to severe economic dislocation o Gov will attempt to intervene o Green manufacturing vs. traditional manufacturing o Can impose policy constraints on policy makers o Can limit options that can realistically be pursued o Dependence on US for trade – places constraints o Impact on business activity is organized politically – regional, language, sectoral differences o Conflicting needs of business – difficult for gov to respond for needs  THREE BROAD INDUSTRIAL SECTORS o PRIMARY  Industries focused on extraction of natural resources – land and water  Fishing, agriculture, forestry, mining, Cory, logging, oil o SECONDARY  Secondary processing of natural resources  Manufacture on construction of final products into a higher value  Steel making, ship, construction, manufacturing, textiles, plastics, automobiles, chemicals o TERTIARY  Not involved in extraction or manufacture industries  Concern with distribution of goods  Broad  Finance, insurance, real estate, transportation, communication, retail, wholesale, commercial services, public administration  CONCERNS REGARDING SECTOR BALANCE o Too much concentration on primary o Backward and underdeveloped secondary sector o Referred to as resource hinder land o Staples economy o Distribution of economic activity not as bad as they say o Dramatic increase in tertiary industry CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE  CANADA – NOT ALL THAT DIFFERENT FROM OTHER INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES o Marginally smaller manufacturing sector and larger tertiary in comparison with other G7 countries o Growing urbanization – increase in public services required o Servicing and repair employment increase o Many jobs part-time jobs & low pay or tip dependent o Retail sector popular – working for minimum wage o Lack of job security o May be a decline in the standard of living o Higher levels of production are dependent on level of consumption  BUT DISTINCT REGIONAL VARIATIONS o ATLANTIC PROVINCES  Regarded as economic back-water of country  Little manufacturing  Lower per capita income (in comparison with rest of country)  Highest levels of unemployment  Resource based industries – mining, forestry, fishing  Manufacturing they do have based on resource extraction of region  Fed/prov initiatives to increase capital- grants, loans, tax credits  Shifts – oil extraction  Newfoundland no longer a have-not province – doesn’t qualify for assistance anymore  Ontario become a have-not province (lack of manufacturing) o QUEBEC  Compared to east coast – large and thriving economy  Diverse manufacturing  High standard of living  Compared to Ontario – not as thriving  Lower personal income  Higher rat
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