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Lecture 3

POLS 2080 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Economic Surplus, Dependency Theory, Andre Gunder Frank

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 2080
Steffi Hamann

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Lecture 2 Theories of Development I
Textbook Questions:
Which of these theoretical approaches came first? Modernization Theory
What does SAP stand for? Structural Adjustment Program
Which of these theories supports free market (Laissez-faire) policies -
The Problem: Poverty
Lack of income/health/education
o President of Tanzania
“Absolute poverty”: less that US $1.25 per day
Huge problem: inequality
Development: process of change
History of Development
Global development project took off after WWII
1950s US optimism and promise of progress
o Job generation and end of Great Depression
o Mass consumerism
Rise of TV
o Rise of middle class
o Recovery of Western Europe
Recovered quickly
European recovery program USA put millions of dollars
into western Europe so they could rebuild themselves
USA needed trading partners
But, progress did not extend to poor nations in the developing world
o Explanations? Modernization Theory
Modernization Theory: Assumptions
Modernization theorist believe that ‘modern’ values, technologies and
institutions are required or societies to develop and advance
Common concept of traditional societies
Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of
transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern or
developed societies
o Truman’s Inaugural address – Inspired modernization theorists
The USA as a developed nation was in a place to help
underdeveloped areas
Need to go from farming to agriculture
Modernization theory is concerned with economic growth (GDP)
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Necessary ingredients in this process include mechanization and
Modernization theorists study the conditions that are needed for economic
growth to occur
In this view, traditional societies perpetuate economic stagnation and
deprive people of their capacity to accumulate wealth
Early modernization theory epitomizes the concepts of the “West” and the
Modernization, is this understanding, essentially refers to the process of
Western-style development
Westernization was considered a desirable and inevitable process for the
rest of the world
o Essential for modernization theory
The imagined moral imperative to promote development echoes
sentiments of the “White Man’s Burden”
What is not something advocated for by Modernization thinkers? Environmental
According to modernization theory, what is the greatest obstacle to
development? Economic stagnation
Stages of Economic Growth
Innovation and technological process in industrial Europe
Walt Rostow’s model of economic growth (1960)
o Traditional societies need to go through this to become ideal
modern societies
o Stage 1 - Everyone starts out as a traditional society agricultural
societies with low growth, no progress
o Stage 2 preconditions for take-off (into self-sustaining growth)
Creating more complex political systems
Trade expansion
Increases in investment
o Stage 3 Take-off
This stage is reached when total amount of investment of a
country in a year reaches more than 10% of GDP
Economic growth should be more than population growth?
o Stage 4 Drive to maturity
More modernization of economy
Increased integration with trade networks
Technological sophistication
o Stage 5 High Mass Consumption society
High income
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