Lectures.docx

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POLS 2250 Public Administration
Lecture 1
January 13, 12
What is public administration?
1) Field of Practice (occupation)
2) Field of Study (discipline)
Public Bureaucracy: system of authority, people, offices, and methods that government
uses to achieve its objectives
-Woodrow Wilson former president of the United States (1887): first to articulate the
need for a science of administration “The Study of Administration”
Administrative study required for
1) Discover what governments can properly do
2) Discover how they can do these proper things with the utmost efficiency and least
possible cost
-we still today almost always ask the same questions, study of public administration has
not changed
Neoliberalism: believes state is too involved in people’s lives
Woodrow’s Claims
-talked about reasoning for lack of attention to administration (things were more
simplistic at end of 19th century)
-political thinkers were devoting attention to the constitutions rather than
administrative matters
-as government grew, developments were needed
-government business could be made more business like
-well functioning administrating systems could all provide valuable lessons
Public VS. Private Administration
Similarities (POSDCORB)
Planning
Organizing
Staffing
Directing
Coordinating
Reporting
Budgeting
Differences
1. Public goods/ Interest Vs. Profit/ Bottom Line
-in public sector public interest has to be pursued
2. Public Administration- less efficient
a. no profit motivation, have no interest or need to be more efficient in delivery of
public services
b. provisions of unprofitable services
c. political considerations
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i. Elections, when are elections held
ii. Duration, length of service varies depending on position. Much more difficult for
deputy minister to engage in long term planning with such a short time in their position.
CEO’s are there longer and have more time to plan in private sector
iii. Cabinet Solidarity, involves consultation and this takes time. Private sector can make
decisions faster without consultation with Cabinet but rather with their colleagues
iv. Ministerial Interference, can impact the efficiency of department
v. Need for Consistency in Program Delivery, being rewarded for loyal patronage in
private sector where everyone is treated equally in the public sector
vi. Need to Protect Minister, public servants are less willing to innovate and take risks in
order to protect the Minister
vii. Re-election
viii. Neutrality, our public servants will loyally and faithfully administer the programs in
office no matter what ideology or party is behind the program. Political considerations
do not come into play
3. Accountability to clerk of Privy Council, minister, or Prime Minister
4. HR constraints, harder to get fired in public sector than in private sector
5. Media Scrutiny: carried out in public eye, journalists always try to find problems,
corruption or waste occurring
6. Persuasion and Direction: have to seek to mediate decision and response to wide
range of pressures. Public service has to hand all public and interest group concerns.
Lecture 2
January 13, 12
Role of Government
1) Owner and Producer E.G. LCBO, CBC, Via Rail, TVO, Canada Post
->LCBO is generating over a billion and a half profits in Ontario
2) Regulator and Supervisor E.G. CFIA, Canadian Dairy Commission, CRTC, Canadian Air
Transport Security Authority
3) Income Redistributor- E.G. Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, HRSDC, Industry
Canada
->Farmers get subsidies from governments
->Public interests funded by the government
->Gov. programs is a source of income i.e. Medicare
->Through the means of welfare i.e. pensions for blind and deaf people,
programs to increase education, step in and provide trading programs and re-integrate
into the market, unemployment insurance, etc.
4) Protector E.G. Department of Justice, Solicitor General, Department of National
Defense, Bank of Canada, Environment Canada, RCMP, CSIS
5) Champion of other objectives Office of the commissioner of official languages,
Canadian heritage, Status of Women Canada, Intergovernmental Affairs
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Size and Growth of Government
-Difficult to accurately define the size and the scope of government
-Role of the tax system
-Government Loans
-Quasi-Public Organizations -> mask the true size of government
Lecture 3
January 16, 12
-Difficult to acquire to accurately define the size and scope of government
-Role of the tax system
-Government loans
-Quasi-public organizations
-Examine government expenditures as % of the GDP
-Growth of public sector employment
-Rise of neo-liberalism/neo-conservatism and the contractions of the size of the state
Explanations for the growth of government
1-War and military expenditures
->States will increase in size during war
->Number of hot spots around the world (US)
->Canada’s debt isn’t as bad as US
->Canada felt this growth after both WW
2-Social conscience/entitlement
->Society has been unwilling to tolerate disparities between members of society
->We provide support and assistance to those in need
->Spending direct expenditures (EI, welfare…)
->As people get older they do not pay income tax so it’s up to the younger
people, they consume more public health care dollars
3-Technological change
->Highly skilled people, post-secondary education
->Insuring Canadians have access to education and training
->Changing technology places greater demands on public goods
4-Population growth and urbanization
->Rural environment
->Increase of a number people leaving farms and living in the urban environment
5-Keynesian Theory
->Government did not save in times of prosperity
6-Government expenditure growth theories
-Wagner’s Law (Adolph Wagner)
-Displacement Effect (Peacock & Wiseman) ->It occurs because of War that
needs an increase in public expenditures. Did not happen in Canada.
7-Political Process
->POGO phenomenon the citizens are the problem because GOV has grown
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