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PSYC 1000
Linda Gerber

Chapter 20: Education Definitions Education: the social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values Schooling: formal instruction under direction of specially trained teachers Functional Illiteracy: is a lack of the reading and writing skills needed for everyday living Hidden Curriculum: subtle presentations of political or cultural ideas in the classroom Streaming: assigning students to different types of educational programs Case Studies #1 Chapter Overview “If you’re an Indian in your twenties living on a reserve, you need to leave right now” (p.506) - Overall Canadians 20-24 years old: 16% do not have high school diploma - Aboriginal Canadians on reserve 20-24 years old: 58% don’t have high school diploma - 1996-2001 No signs of improvement, failed at rescuing present Native generations in their education - Urban natives are twice as likely to complete a high school diploma than ones on reserve & have average incomes that are 80% of average incomes in Toronto, 77% in montreal and 75% in Ottawa if the native lives off reserve #2 Functional Illiteracy: Must We Rethink Education? (p.510) - Illiteracy is a debilitating experience - can be caused by abuse (eg. Jacques Demers, hockey coach, beaten, to anxious to focus in school) - National Literacy Secretariat states “63% of Canadians have sufficient literacy and numeracy skills to deal adequately with every day tasks”; (22% have some difficulty; 15% have difficulty recognizing familiar words or doing simple addition & subtraction) - Due to our high immigrant population many of them are literate in their own language but not in the two main languages in Canada - Many immigrant children represent the lower illiteracy in Canada - Functional illiteracy caused by - kids being put through each grade whether they understood or not - parents who do not encourage children to learn language skills - Costs government 100 billions of dollars - decreased productivity in workers - higher incidents of accidents - increase unemployment resulting in paying for public assistance - potentially more likely to end up in Jail To deal with this problem for: - Kids: Don’t let them pass till they have basic literacy skills - Adults: diagnose (can be difficult due to embarrassment) place in adult education #3 School Attendance among Youth across Canada: Where You Live Makes a Difference (p.516-517) Family & social institutions such as education perpetuates(continues) social class from one generation to the next. Powerful social & economical forces affect individual decisions, which in turn create a social pattern - Factors that determine the likelihood of continuing education are 1). Characteristics of family: Being able to afford expenses, having (or not) an educated role model, amount of exposure to -computers, newspapers, and books- These are all forms that effect the types of aspirations you have for yourself in your future Generalization - (Eg. Low income, low exposure to different forms of information, parents without higher education, unlikely to have high expectations in schooling vs. opposite more likely to go on to further education) 2). Community/area where you live Quality of schooling determined by: Rich/poor Rural/Urban Characteristics of neighbors & friends Presence of neighborhood gangs Recreational options Exposure to greater world Distance to nearest educational systems near a persons home Statistics: 19%-21% of people in Ontario & B.C. have a bachelors degree 9%-11% of people in Nunavut, Newfoundland & Labrador have a bachelors degree Study done on change in full-time school attendance between 1991 & 2001 in Canada 55-57% of people aged between 15-24 attend school full-time in 1991-2001 Attendance has increase by 2% 2001 Quebec, Newfoundland & Labrador, Nova Scotia had highest attendance 2001 Nunavut, Northwest Territories & B.C. had lowest attendance scores Nunavut: From 1961 - 2001 had the highest increase of attendance by 13%. Explanation relates to: their separation North West Territories caused Inuit to be engaged in political & economic sphere & were promised a new opportunities including education Newfoundland & Labrador: second lowest level of educational attainment but highest level of school attendance. Reasoning behind findings: depressed economy meant no jobs at home. Many young people left school & migrate to other provinces to find work Quebec: high attendance & educational attainment success relates to: The Quiet Revolution that occurred in Quebec embraced a higher education Alberta: Decent level of school attainment & low level of attendance. Reasoning: Oil rigs requires few highly educated members, but employs thousands of workers many who don’t have high school degrees. Also receiving a lot of people from down east who never completed schooling. #4 Explaining Educational Attainment Frederick & Boyd examined the information from General Social Survey on the relationship between family structures and high-school completion. (Impact of single parenting/blended/step-parenting families the effects on education). Findings: Parental Education & Family structure both have significant effects - Individuals aged 22-44 who had lived with both biological parents at the age of 15 had a 80% success rate of completing high school versus those from lone-parent or blended family had a 70%-71% success rate - 94% of kids completed high school if they lived with biological parents & their parents had their high school diplomas - 71% of kids completed high school if they lived with biological parents but their parents did not have their diplomas - 59% of kids completed high school if they were from a single parenting/blended/ step-parenting families and those parents did not have their diplomas de Broucker & Lavallee used an Adult Literacy Survey to assess the role of “inherited intellectual capital” in getting post-secondary education Findings: - Most adults ages 26 - 35 got the same level of education as their parents - Father’s with high-status occupations have children with higher educational attainment - Parents with university degrees are also more likely to read to children, providing an environment conducive to learning - Supportive parenting also has a high impact on educational achievement eg. Five Canadian sisters were the daughters of a Physician from Ghana and Canadian nurse and they said that with “their fathers stern but positive guidance, combined with their mothers warm and protective support” led them to where they are. Undergraduates from Harvard with two doctors & three lawyers - Top achieving students have been Asian - Cultural capital formed at home , makes ethnicity more important than any other factor in determining educational attainment #5 Aboriginal Education: From Residential School to College and University(p.520-521) Residential schools - civilize and assimilate the native children by getting rid of their native language & culture and converting to an English system in learning/ White Culture. More than 80000 natives attended. compensation for an individual = $10000 + $3000(amount of years they attended) Result of the schools was “the beginning of cultural tragedy”. It damaged educational practices along with physical, emotional & sexual abuse occurred. Kids were thrown into unknown environment away from their families & traditional culture and later were unprepared for returning to their own communities Closing of residential school made aboriginals turn to public system where they were to far behind & dropped out. 60% of Natives today attend their own Native public school, but have a hard time adjusting to Canadian High Schools. They are unable to compete. They then don’t receive skills for work force & don’t know their own culture & language Barriers to their learning included: - poverty - housing problems - violence - racism Many want to attend university 1996 40% unemployment rate for young Aboriginals without high school education 9% unemployment rate for Aboriginals with degrees Unemployment rates are the same for both Aboriginals & Non-Aboriginals with the same levels of education Gap between Aboriginals & UnAboriginals attainment of a job is growing as Aboriginals are not able to keep up with mainstream society Having said that improvement in Aboriginal Education has occurred since 1996. In 1996 forty-five percent (45%) of young aboriginals had not completed high school. In 2006 it was thirty-two percent (32%) had not completed high school. In 1996 fifteen-to-twenty percent (15-20%) of Natives completed university. In 2006 is it still twenty percent (20%). Native Indians living off reserve are much more successful academically than those on reserve. Highest drop-out rate for Indians on reserves Lowest rate of academic attainment on all levels (High school, College/CEGEP, Bachelors, above university bachelors) 3/4 of Native Indians off-reserve have academic certification 90% of Non native have an academic certification 44% of Non-natives have graduated college level, 30 percent of off-reserve indians have graduated college level, overall Aboriginals 27% & on reserve indians at 17%. #6 Welcome to Cyber-School (p.524) Education is responding to the arrival of computer-literate children and the demands of a drastically altered knowledge-based economy by integrating computers & internet throughout the education system. Geographically unbounded community - Cyber school allows people in remote settings, or traveling abroad to get a good or continue their education. It allows kids to do home schooling (especially if one is ADD or ADHD) more easily and international students can get a Canadian education. Online university courses & online universities have started - University of Athabaska University students using online journals & sources for information, newspapers available online Notes Focus of chapter on the impact of the different levels of education and what groups have availability to each of these levels. Schooling and Economic Development In low & middle class countries information comes from families & communities about important knowledge & skills Schooling not related to survival is mainly available to rich people Culture & religion also relate to education 1/5 of people globally cannot read or write 1/4 of children never get to school Schooling in India - Economic development (applicable to all schooling situations) Child labour is outlawed in India but it still continues Children work up to 60hrs a week leaving little time for schooling Patriarchy society - boys are more likely to get income as they provide for their families, females are expensive for a family as when married family must provide dowry & girls contribute to family they marry into. Most factories are filled with girls - 91% of children complete primary school
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