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Ecosystem Functions.pdf

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PSYC 2310
Jim Kirkland

February-13-14 4:10 PM Overlappingcompetitors 1. Competitive exclusion: One of the species disappearsfrom that area 2. Character displacement: both species continue to exist, but they divergeto occupy slightly different ecological niches within the shared habitat 3. Co-existence at reduced carrying capacity: both speciescontinue to livein the area, but at lower numbers of individualsper species Deciduousvs. Coniferous: Example of competitive exclusion Deciduous: Dominant here because of seasonal temperature variationand even precipitation among the seasons. -Outcompete conifers in summerbecause largerleaves meansgreater photosynthetic capacity. Measuring Population Density: • Pt2=Pt1+B-D+I-E Population at timetwo=Population at time one +births - deaths+ immigrants-emigrants Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis: Predicts that the highest speciesrichness occurs at an intermediatelevel of natural disturbance. Low levelsof disturbance result in a lowamount of habitats, whereas highlevelsof disturbance eliminatetoo manyhabitats to support diversity. • Floods, forest fireetc. are large,infrequent disturbances that are often catastrophic. • Natural disturbances playan important role in shaping landscapes and influencing ecosystem processes. Ecosystem Function: Includes the exchange of nutrients and energyamong plants, animals, and their environments. End result of ecosystem processes. • In a woodlot, there isusually a lot of carbon and leaf litter that decomposes to produce biomass. • This results in a ton of organismslikeinsects, bacteria and fungi to exist to keep the logs and branches from pilingup on the woodlot floor. • Measure and compare growth rates of forest as compared to the age of the forest to calculate the forest biomass. • Can also measurethe lightto see the structure of the canopy and how much light isabsorbed by the canopy and leaf biomass. • Researchers are studying the relationship between productivity and biodiversity.There are • Researchers are studying the relationship between productivity and biodiversity.There are many factors beyond control, so new project has seedlingsplanted under controlled conditions to compare growths. Ecosystem Service: Processes within ecosystems that provide resources likewater, clean air or decomposition. • Woodlots providecarbon recycling, animal waste filtering and filtering of watersheds. • Alsodefined as benefits people obtain from ecosystems that can be put in one
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