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PSYCH 1200 - CH 13.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

PSYCH 1200CH 13 Demonological viewbelief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces Trephinationprocedure to release the spirit a sharp tool used to chisel a hole in the skull about 2 cm in diameterEarly biological viewmental illnesses are diseases like physical disorders Psychological perspectivesFreud caused by unresolved conflicts from childhoodNeurosesdo not involve loss of contact wreality ie obsessions phobiasdepression Psychosesmore sever disorders can no longer deal wreality withdraw ie schizophrenia Behavioural perspectivedisordered behaviours seen as learned responses through classical conditioning operant conditioningmodellingHumanistic perspectiveresult of environmental forces that frustrate ppls inherent selfactualization tendenciessearch for meaning in life Vulnerabilitystress modeleveryone has some degree of vulnerability to developing a psychological disorder Vulnerabilitypredisposition can have biological basis from personality factor or from environmental factors Stressorsome recent or current event that requires a person to cope Drapetomaniaobsessive desire for freedom any slave who tried more than twice to escapeSelfdefeatingmasochistic personality disorderrepeatedly involved in hurtful circumstancesrelationships Abnormal behaviourbehaviour that is personally distressfuldysfunctional or culturally devianto social construction can be affected by value judgementspolitical agendas o Behaviours abnormal if they are distressing dysfunctionalseen as deviantReliabilityclinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in diagnostic decisions Validitydiagnostic categories should accurately capture essential features of various disorders thDiagnosticStatistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 Ed DSMIVmost used diagnostic classification system in NAAxis Iprimary diagnosis represents persons primary clinical symptoms Axis IIreflects longstanding personality developmental disorders ingrained inflexible aspects of personality that could influence persons behaviourresponse to treatmentAxis IIInotes physical conditions that might be relevant high blood pressure Axis IVrates intensity of environmental stressors in persons recent lifeAxis Vpersons coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioningCompetencya defendants state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing Insanityrelated to the presumed state of mind of the defendant at the time the crime was committed verdict may be not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder NCRMD Medical students diseaseppl read descriptions of disorderssee some symptomscharacteristics in themselvesAnxiety disordersfrequencyintensity of anxiety responses out of proportion to the situations that trigger them o Behaviouralists say anxiety disorders result from emotional conditioningSubjectiveemotional componentfeelings of tensionapprehensionCognitivesubjective feelings of apprehension sense of impending dangerfeeling of inability to cope Physiological responsesincreased heart rateblood pressure muscle tension rapid breathing nausea dry mouth diarrhoeafrequent urination Behaviouralavoidance of certain situationsimpaired task performance Phobiasstrongirrational fears of certain objects or situations can develop at any pointrarely go away on their own can be acquired through observational learningAgoraphobiafear of openpublic places Social phobiasexcessive fear of situations in which person might be evaluatedpossible embarrassedSpecific phobiasfears of dogs snakes spiders etcGeneralized anxiety disorderchildhoodadolescence chronic state of diffuse freefloating anxiety not attached to specific situations or objects hard to concentrate make decisionsremember commitments Panic disorderslate adolescence early adulthood occur suddenlyunpredictablymuch more intense feel like dying most develop agoraphobia o Attacks triggered by exaggerated misinterpretations of formal anxiety symptoms heart palpitations dizzinessbreathlessness Obsessivecompulsive disorder usually occurs in 20s
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