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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Paula Barata

Chapter 13- Psychological Disorders Historical Perspectives On Psychological Disorders: The Demonological View: - abnormal behaviour due to supernatural forces deviance= work of devil - trephination: removal of piece of skull to release demon from brain - killing of witches (anyone with psychological disorder) Early Biological Views: - Hippocrates suggested mental illnesses to be diseases like physical disorders - General paresis: disorder characterized by mental deterioration Psychological Perspectives: - Sigmund Freud’s theory now explained deviance in 1900s, Freud convinced psychological disorders unresolved childhood conflicts - Depression, etc without loss of contact from reality: neuroses - Withdrawl from reality: psychoses Vulnerability-Stress Model p 531 Vulnerability: predisposition, biological basis or hormonal factor Stressor: some recent/current event requiring person to cope Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders: - abnormality largely social judgement - behaviour judged to be psychological disorder 1. distressing to person/others 2. dysfunctional, maladaptive, self-defeating 3. socially deviant arousing other’s discomfort not attributed to environmental causes - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSMV- IV), most widely used diagnostic classification system information represented along five axes - Axis 1: person’s primary clinical symptoms - Axis 2: long standing personality/developmental disorders (could influence behaviour and response to treatment) - Axis 3: any physical conditions that might be relevant (ie. high blood pressure) - Axis 4: intensity of environmental stressors - Axis 5: recent adaptive functioning/coping resources - Reliability/validity important Critical Issues in Diagnostic Labelling: - label may become description of individual rather than the behaviour - competency refers to defendant’s state of mind at time of judicial hearing (not when crime was committed!!) - insanity: resumed state of mind of defendant when crime was committed, can be declared not guilty by reason of insanity if severely impaired - NCRMD- not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder - Legal implications of insanity/competency Anxiety Disorders: - frequency and intensity of anxiety responses out of proportion to situations that trigger them, anxiety interferes with daily life 1. subjective-emotional component  tension, apprehension 2. cognitive component  danger, inability to cope 3. physiological responses  increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension - phobias are strong irrational fears of certain objects/situations - agoraphobia: fear of open places - social phobias: fear of situations where person is judged/can be embarrassed - specific phobias: dogs, snakes, spiders, etc. - generalized anxiety disordr: diffuse anxiety not attached to specific situations, etc - panic disorders: occur suddenly and unpredictably, intense, chronic tension/anxiety - obsessive-compulsive disorder: cognitive/behavioural component - obsessions: repetitive unwelcome thoughts, etc. compulsive: repetitive behavioural responses - post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): severe anxiety disorder in people exposed to traumatic life events, flashbacks, numb to world, “survivor guilt”, anxiety 1. biological factors in anxiety disorders genetic/biochemical processes, neurotransmitters (GABA) within parts of the brain that control arousal 2. psychoanalytic factors  anxiety results from ego defences not dealing with internal psychological conflicts 3. cognitive tendencies to magnify degree of threat/danger and misinterpret normal anxiety (panic disorder) in ways evoking panic 4. behavioural learned response(classical conditioning/vicarious learning), avoidance is operant response negatively reinforced by anxiety reduction 5. sociocultural culture-bound anxiety, greater prevalence in women for anxiety (bio/sociocultural) - mood disorders: depression and mania, frequently experienced - major depression: leaving patient unable to function - dysthymia: mild depression, less dramatic effects on personal functioning DEPRESSION p 546 - bipolar disorder: intense mood and behaviour activation (mania) - genetics/neurochemicals linked to depression (under activity of neurotransmitters: norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin that activate brain areas involved in pleasure/motivation) drugs increase activity of transmitters - psychoanalytic theorists depression long term consequence of traumatic losses early in life - cognitive role of negative beliefs about self, world, future TRIAD (Seligman’s theory of learned helplessness negative outcomes fosters depression) - behavioural depressive activity reduces reinforcement from environment increasing depression more - manipulation and desire to escape distress= SUICIDE, increases if person is king no credit for depressed having lethal plan - Beck’s depressive attributional pattern of taking no credit for success but blaming failure on self, maintain low self esteem Somatoform Disorders: - somatoform disorders: physical complaints/disabilities that suggest a medical problem but with no biological explanat
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