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PSYC 2330 Lecture Notes - Aplysia, Habituation, Chocolate Cake

Course Code
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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PSYC*2330 Lecture 4
Week Lecture 2 (b)
Experiments performed in the Aplysia have demonstrated that habituation is caused by:
a. increase in withdrawal reflexive reactions
b. reduction of interest in the task
c. reduction of pool of synaptic vesicles
d. expression of synaptic extracellular potassium
e. increase in intracellular sodium
Answer: C
- Hull argued that there is only one type of drive
- Drive is a general pool of energy that can activate innate and learned behaviour
- There are several sources of drive, but drive itself is nonspecific and nondirective
- there are different kind of needs, when you experience a specific need, the drive and
the stimulus drive are activated at the same time e.g. the noise your stomach makes
when youʼre hungry
- the drive is energizing general activity, and will activate previous habits and new
- you go around and drink water, and try things to satisfy you and find out itʼs food
- you learn something new so the next time you have the same type of energy and
stimulation you will know that you need food
- you strengthen the relationship between the stimulus and the response
- once you find out whatʼs appropriate to do it becomes much easier
Incentive Motivation
- Hull eventually realized that the characteristics of the goal objects influence the
motivation of the organism
- sEr = sHr x D x K
Thursday, Jan 19, 2011

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- K = incentive value of the goal object (strawberry cake over chocolate cake)
- The value of K is learned
Incentive Learning Theory (Tony Dickinson and Bernard Baleen)
- some will go for one type of stimulus and other people will go for others
- dessert is an evil concept, no more food is required but yet it is presented in front of
you, its beautiful and you eat it anyway -> incentive value is strong enough to make
you eat it even though you are full (cause behaviour)
- The value of K is relative
Incentive Relativity (L.P. Creeps)
- 3 groups of rats trained to run into a maze
- when they do the shift on day 20, they put all the animals to 16 pellets
- the animals trained for 16 nothing changed
- the change occurred in the change in relativity
- the ones trained for 1 run so much faster because there is a higher incentive value
- the rats changed for 256 pellets run a lot slower after the shift
- the shift is not because the animals are unlearning, its a matter of motivation and
Central Motive State (Diatribe Bindra)
- incentive value is also used to your central motive state (generalized drive)
- how many strawberry cakes can you possibly eat? 2? 3? after the 4th no because the
central motive state has been altered
- the strength of the behaviour (sEr) is a product of learning (sHr), the incentive (k) value
of stimuli and the drive (central motive state)
Thursday, Jan 19, 2011
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