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Lecture 14

PSYC 2330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Kenneth Spence, Reinforcement, Cue Reactivity

Course Code
PSYC 2330
Francesco Leri

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Thursday, March 8, 2012
PSYC*2330 Lecture 14 (Week 7)
- Effectiveness of reinforcement
- Extinction
- Behavioural modification
Delay of Reinforcement
- delay is very important
- delay chambers allow the animal to fill the gap
- the gap increases excitement
- delay box is a conditioned reinforcer

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Kenneth Spence
- Proprioceptive conditioned reinforcers
- when proprioceptive, as well as exteroceptive, conditioned reinforcers are eliminated,
even a brief delay in the presentation of the reinforcer prevents learning
- proprioception is your ability of sensing your own movement of your own body
- black is associated with food and white is not
- you can switch around the delay boxes and the black and the white components that
way making a consistent right turn is not the predictor of food, the colour is
- how much delay can it tolerate and still learn that black is associated with food?
- the different curve represent the delay
- for no delay, it takes 100 trials for the animal to learn the task
- 2 seconds, it will take 550 trials, 10 seconds they will never learn it
- the time between the response and the reinforcer is extremely important
- small amount of time is devastating in the acquisition of behaviour
Stimulus Control
- behaviour that has been reinforced in the presence of one stimulus is controlled by the
presence/absence of that stimulus
- however, responding often generalizes to other stimuli on the basis of their similarity to
the training stimulus
- when you learn a response, itʼs usually in the context of other stimuli, and there is
essentially 2 extremes whereby env stimuli control your behaviour:
1) Generalization - no control (environment has no control on whether you are getting a
reinforcer or not) you behaviour is generalized over situations
2) Discrimination - environment has strict control over your behaviour
- e.g. experiments with pigeons that have to peck a certain colour of disc (green)
- for discrimination, change the wavelength of the colour to slightly yellow and donʼt
reinforce, they only get it for perfectly green
- for generalization they must peck the disc whenever it is lit for every colour
- important point is for behavioural modifications
- general principle: if youʼre trying to change behaviour using positive reinforcers, and its
wanted behaviour, you encourage generalization e.g. encourage someone to wear
their retainer all the time
- for unwanted behaviours encourage discrimination, if the behaviour must happen it
should happen only in certain situations, only with certain stimulus present - that way
you can control their behaviour by controlling the stimulus
- e.g. if you want a dog to be nice to people yo want them to be nice to everyone
(generalizable) but if you want them to attack you only want it for specific people/
situations (discrimination)
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