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PSYC 2450 (155)

developmental psych chapter 16

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PSYC 2450
Jennifer Mc Taggart

Developmental Chapter 16: The Family Understanding Family  Socialization – the process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviours considered desirable or appropriate by their culture or subculture - Acquired by the family The Family as a Social System - A holistic structure consisting of interrelated parts  Traditional Nuclear Families – a family unit consisting of a wife/mother, a husband/father, and their dependent child or children - Father-infant relationship influenced by the father-mother relationship, father is more likely to be engaged and supportive if relationship with spouse is harmonious  Co-parenting – circumstance in which parents mutually support each other and function as a cooperative parenting team - Difficult to achieve if marital discord or other life stresses are present - Every individual in the family affects every individual  Extended Family – a group of blood relatives from more than one nuclear family (grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins..) who live together forming a household or live in close proximity to Families as Developing Systems - More single adults - Active postponement marriages (cohabit, pursue education and careers etc.) - Decreased childbearing - More women employed - More divorces - More children living in poverty - More single-parent families - More remarriages  Single-Parent Family – family system consisting of one parent (either mother or father) and the parent’s dependent child/children  Blended (Reconstituted) Families – new families resulting from cohabitation or remarriage that include a parent, one or more children, and step-relations Parental Socialization during Childhood and Adolescence Two Major Dimensions of Parenting  Acceptance/Responsiveness – describes the amount of responsiveness and affection that a parent displays toward a child - Smile, praise, encourage, warmth - Positive developmental outcomes and secure emotional attachments  Demandingness/Control – (sometimes called permissiveness/restrictiveness) describing how restrictive and demanding the parents are - Regulation, supervision, demands - Poor development Four Patterns of Parenting - Baumrind’s research – 3 styles  Authoritarian Parenting – restrictive parenting in which adults set many rules for their children, expect strict obedience, and rely on power rather than reason to elicit compliance - Children are generally moody, unhappy, easily annoyed and unfriendly, aimless, and not too pleasant  Authoritative Parenting – flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control while allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challenges and obligations - Children develop generally well, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement- oriented, cooperative  Permissive Parenting – otherwise accepting adults male few demands of their children and rarely attempt to control their behaviour - Impulsive children, aggressive especially if boys - Bossy, self-centered, lack of self-control, low in independence and achievement  Uninvolved Parenting – a pattern of parenting that is both aloof (or even hostile) and over permissive, almost as if parents cared about neither their children nor what they might become - Children often are hostile, selfish, rebellious as adolescents - May engage in antisocial and delinquent acts such as alcohol or drug abuse, sexual misconduct, truancy, etc. Behavioural Control versus Psychological Control  Behavioural Control – attempts to regulated a child’s or an adolescent’s conduct through firm discipline and monitoring of his or her conduct - Withholding privileges, grounding, etc. - More positive outcomes in development  Psychological Control – attempts to influence a child’s or adolescent’s behaviour by such psychological tactics as withholding affection and/or inducing shame or guilt - Anxiety, depression, deviant or antisocial conduct Parent Effects or Child Effects  Parent-Effects Model – model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa - This view claims authoritative parenting causes positive developmental outcomes only  Child-Effects Model – children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa - This view claims authoritative parenting looks so adaptive because easy-going manageable and competent children enable parents to become more authoritative  Transactional Model – model of family influence in which parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally - Children can and often do affect their parents for better or worse - Parents are almost solely responsible for determining whether their children turn out good or bad Social Class and Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing Social Class Differences in Child Rearing - Middle-class, economically disadvantaged and working parents tend to 1. Stress obedience and respect authority 2. Be more restrictive and authoritarian 3. Reason with their children less frequently 4. Show less warmth and affection - Because obedience is an important skill as a blue-collar worker - Middle and upper class parents tend to 1. Reason and negotiate more 2. Emphasize individual initiative, curiosity, and creativity - Because these abilities matter in their own occupations as white-collar workers  Acculturation Stress – anxiety or uneasiness that new residents may feel upon attempting to assimilate a new culture and its traditions The Quest for Autonomy: Renegotiating the Parent-Child Relationship during Adolescence  Autonomy – capacity to make decisions independently, serve as one’s own source of emotional strength, and otherwise manage life tasks without depending on others for assistance; an important developmental task of adolescence - Adolescents assert themselves for more self-governance and independence, evolving the parent-child relationship into an enterprise of more equal footing - Not the same for Chinese or Asian American parents who exert their control over their children for longer The Influence of Siblings and Sibling Relationships - Popular view
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