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Developmental 16.pdf

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology TheFamily The family is a social system o Most important function is to socialize children o Socialization: The process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviours considered desirable or appropriate by their culture or subculture o Family social system: The complex network of relationships, interactions, and patterns of influence that characterizes a family with three or more members.  Traditional nuclear families: a family unit consisting of a wife/mother, a husband/father and their dependent child or children.  Co-parenting: circumstance in which parents mutually support each- other function as a cooperative parenting team o Effective co-parenting is difficult for couples experiencing marital discord and other life stresses  Extended family: A group of blood relatives from more than one nuclear family (a practice in which parents and their children live with or in close proximity to other relatives “grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews”.) The family is a network of reciprocal relationships o Direct effects  Influence of two family members on each other o Indirect effects  A relationship between members that affects another member The family is a social system o Parents relationship  Parenting  infant behaviour and development all interconnected Characteristics of family system o Constantly developing o Embedded within larger culture  Culture is also changing  Single adults, later marriage o 90% eventually marry  Decreased child-bearing o Wait longer after they marry to have children and have fewer of them o More women choosing not to have children  Women’s employment o 59.5% of women reported working in year 2000 o 40% of women who work full time have a child 16 or under at home o 56% who work part-time have at least one child under 16 at home  Divorce and single parent families Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology o More than a third of marriages are expected to end in divorce o Single parent family: family system consisting of one parent (either the mother or the father) and the parent’s dependent child or children.  more are headed by women 83%  rate for male single parents is rising  Remarriages o Blended or reconstituted, families: new families resulting from cohabitation or remarriage that include a parent, one or more children, and step-relations  72% of divorced mothers and 80% of divorced fathers are remarrying  Poverty o Low income families are at a greater risk for failing to meet necessities of life than other income groups  Majority of low income families in Canada are headed by a single female parent Parenting Dimensions of parenting o Acceptance / responsiveness  A dimension of parenting that describes the amount of responsiveness and affection that a parent displays toward a child  Warmth and affection that a parent displays  Less accepting and unresponsive parents are often quick to criticize, belittle, punish, or ignore a child o Rarely communicate to children that they are valued or loved o Demandingness / control  A dimension of parenting that describes how restrictive and demanding parents are  Supervision parents undertake with their children  Controlling/demanding parents place limits on their children’s freedom of expression by imposing many demands  Actively monitor children’s behaviour to ensure these rules are followed  Monitoring and controlling children’s activities, to make sure the children are actually following the rules  Parents less controlling / undemanding are much less restrictive, make fewer demands and allow children considerable freedom to pursue their interests and make decisions about their own activities Four patterns of parenting o Baumrind’s (1967) research with preschoolers and parents  Authoritarian: High on demandingness control low on warmth acceptingness dimension Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology  These parents often rely on punitive forceful tactics (power assertion or love withdrawal) to gain compliance o Not sensitive to child’s differing viewpoints o Domineering and expect child to accept their word as law and respect their authority  Authoritarian parenting: A restrictive pattern of parenting in which adults set many rules for their children, expect strict obedience, and rely on power rather than reason to elicit compliance o Children don’t develop very well  Children moody, seemingly unhappy, easily annoyed and unfriendly, not very pleasant to be around  Authoritative: Good parenting style, controlling but flexible, accepting and responsive to child’s views. Explain their rules: perfect balance of control and warmth  Much more accepting of and responsive to their children’s points of view than authoritarian parents  Seek children’s participation in family decision making  Exercise control in a rational, democratic way that recognizes and respects children’s perspectives o Found children develop well  Permissive: A pattern of parenting in which otherwise accepting adults make few demands of their children and rarely attempt to control their behaviour  Don’t monitor activities of children  Rarely exert firm control over their behaviour o Children were often impulsive, aggressive especially if they are boys o Tended to be bossy, self-centered and lacking self-control o Low in independence and achievement o Maccoby and martin (1983)  Added Uninvolved: A pattern of parenting that is both aloof (or even hostile) and over permissive, almost as if parents cared neither about their children nor about what they become  Worst kind of parenting for a child, parent basically rejects child too involved in own life, don’t demand or care what child is doing. Not because they trust just but because they don’t care o By age 3 children are already high in aggression and externalizing behaviour like temper tantrums o Tend to be disruptive and perform poorly in classrooms o Children often become hostile, selfish, rebellious adolescents who lack meaningful long range goals o Prone to commit antisocial and delinquent acts  Alcohol and drug abuse, sexual misconduct, truancy, ect. Four patterns of parenting o Cognitive and social development examined o Found authoritative had the best cognitive outcome Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology o Authoritarian had average out comes o Permissive had low cognitive and behavioural outcomes o Uninvolved by age 3 were showing signs of aggression, adolescence less social development WORST outcome Behavioural control or psychological control? o Behavioural control: attempts to regulate a child’s or an adolescents conduct through firm discipline and monitor of his or her conduct  Behavioural control leads to better outcomes  Tend to have well behaved children and adolescents who don’t become involved in deviant peer activities and generally stay out of trouble o Psychological control: Attempts to influence a child’s or adolescents behaviour by such psychological means as withholding affection or inducing shame or guilt  Often associated with poor developmental outcomes like anxiety and depression affiliation with deviant peers and anti-social conduct in adolescence Parent effects or child effects? o Child effects model: Model of family influence in which children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa  The parents parent however they feel that the child needs, less evidence for this one o Parents effects model: Model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa  Parent influences the way the child is parented  supported o Transactional model: Model of family influence in which parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally  Combination of the two parent and child mutually influence each other  This model recognizes o Children can and often do affect their parents for better or worse o Parents are almost solely responsible for determining whether their children turn out good or bad Variations in child rearing o SES effects (group trends)  Low SES families tend to stress obedience and respect for authority, to be more restrictive and explain the reasons for the rules less using power for discipline  Show less warmth and affection  Family distress model  Reason they are low SES is because they live in high stress situations, feed children, pay bills ect.. Not a priority to be warm at the time  Occupational expectations  Reason to be low SES, parents from low SES tend to be more blue collier workers “listen to authority because it will help you advance” so they will try to instill this in their children  White color workers need different skills to succeed Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology o Middle and upper class parents may reason or negotiate more with their children while emphasizing individual initiative, curiosity, and creativity because these are the skills attributes and abilities that matter in their own occupations as business executives, white color workers or professionals o Cultural Variations  Authoritarianism in Chinese and Canadian families  Doesn’t work in Canadian families but works in Chinese cultures, interpret it from their parents differently than Canadian families likely due to culture  No-nonsense parenting in African American families  African turn out fine as well, based on how you interpret parenting style could influence its efficiency  Acculturation stress: Anxiety or uneasiness that new residents may feel upon attempting to assimilate a new culture and its traditions Parent adolescent relations o Adolescents must achieve autonomy  Autonomy: Capacity to make decisions independently, serve as one’s own source of emotional strength and otherwise manage life tasks without depending on others for assistance; an important developmental task of adolescence  Ability to make your own decisions and not rely on your parents o Conflict  Best way to get through this is to gradually give your kids more freedom in their actions  Adolescents who perceive relationships with parents to be very conflictual and non-supportive appear to be better adjusted if they distance themselves a bit from their families and gain support of say a teacher  Adolescents who are warmly received at home would be better off staying with their families those who achieve autonomy gradually achieve more autonomy while maintaining close attachments to family members  Display the best overall pattern of psychosocial adjustment o Gradual shift from parent to child control Siblings A new baby o No longer have mom and dad to themselves so it could foster resentment toward the new baby usually if th
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