PSYC 2450 Chapter Notes -Single Parent, Nuclear Family, Coparenting

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Professor
Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology
The Family
The family is a social system
o Most important function is to socialize children
o Socialization: The process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviours
considered desirable or appropriate by their culture or subculture
o Family social system: The complex network of relationships, interactions, and patterns
of influence that characterizes a family with three or more members.
Traditional nuclear families: a family unit consisting of a wife/mother, a
husband/father and their dependent child or children.
Co-parenting: circumstance in which parents mutually support each-
other function as a cooperative parenting team
o Effective co-parenting is difficult for couples experiencing
marital discord and other life stresses
Extended family: A group of blood relatives from more than one
nuclear family (a practice in which parents and their children live with or
in close proximity to other relatives grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces
and nephews.)
The family is a network of reciprocal relationships
o Direct effects
Influence of two family members on each other
o Indirect effects
A relationship between members that affects another member
The family is a social system
o Parents relationship Parenting infant behaviour and development all interconnected
Characteristics of family system
o Constantly developing
o Embedded within larger culture
Culture is also changing
Single adults, later marriage
o 90% eventually marry
Decreased child-bearing
o Wait longer after they marry to have children and have fewer of
them
o More women choosing not to have children
Women’s employment
o 59.5% of women reported working in year 2000
o 40% of women who work full time have a child 16 or under at
home
o 56% who work part-time have at least one child under 16 at
home
Divorce and single parent families
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Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology
o More than a third of marriages are expected to end in divorce
o Single parent family: family system consisting of one parent
(either the mother or the father) and the parent’s dependent child
or children.
more are headed by women 83%
rate for male single parents is rising
Remarriages
o Blended or reconstituted, families: new families resulting from
cohabitation or remarriage that include a parent, one or more
children, and step-relations
72% of divorced mothers and 80% of divorced fathers
are remarrying
Poverty
o Low income families are at a greater risk for failing to meet
necessities of life than other income groups
Majority of low income families in Canada are headed
by a single female parent
Parenting
Dimensions of parenting
o Acceptance / responsiveness
A dimension of parenting that describes the amount of responsiveness and
affection that a parent displays toward a child
Warmth and affection that a parent displays
Less accepting and unresponsive parents are often quick to criticize,
belittle, punish, or ignore a child
o Rarely communicate to children that they are valued or loved
o Demandingness / control
A dimension of parenting that describes how restrictive and demanding parents
are
Supervision parents undertake with their children
Controlling/demanding parents place limits on their children’s freedom of
expression by imposing many demands
Actively monitor children’s behaviour to ensure these rules are followed
Monitoring and controlling children’s activities, to make sure the
children are actually following the rules
Parents less controlling / undemanding are much less restrictive, make
fewer demands and allow children considerable freedom to pursue their
interests and make decisions about their own activities
Four patterns of parenting
o Baumrind’s (1967) research with preschoolers and parents
Authoritarian: High on demandingness control low on warmth acceptingness
dimension
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Chapter 16 Developmental Psychology
These parents often rely on punitive forceful tactics (power assertion or
love withdrawal) to gain compliance
o Not sensitive to child’s differing viewpoints
o Domineering and expect child to accept their word as law and
respect their authority
Authoritarian parenting: A restrictive pattern of parenting in which
adults set many rules for their children, expect strict obedience, and rely
on power rather than reason to elicit compliance
o Children don’t develop very well
Children moody, seemingly unhappy, easily annoyed
and unfriendly, not very pleasant to be around
Authoritative: Good parenting style, controlling but flexible, accepting
and responsive to child’s views. Explain their rules: perfect balance of
control and warmth
Much more accepting of and responsive to their childrens points of view
than authoritarian parents
Seek childrens participation in family decision making
Exercise control in a rational, democratic way that recognizes and
respects childrens perspectives
o Found children develop well
Permissive: A pattern of parenting in which otherwise accepting adults make
few demands of their children and rarely attempt to control their behaviour
Dont monitor activities of children
Rarely exert firm control over their behaviour
o Children were often impulsive, aggressive especially if they are
boys
o Tended to be bossy, self-centered and lacking self-control
o Low in independence and achievement
o Maccoby and martin (1983)
Added Uninvolved: A pattern of parenting that is both aloof (or even hostile) and
over permissive, almost as if parents cared neither about their children nor about
what they become
Worst kind of parenting for a child, parent basically rejects child too
involved in own life, don’t demand or care what child is doing. Not
because they trust just but because they don’t care
o By age 3 children are already high in aggression and
externalizing behaviour like temper tantrums
o Tend to be disruptive and perform poorly in classrooms
o Children often become hostile, selfish, rebellious adolescents
who lack meaningful long range goals
o Prone to commit antisocial and delinquent acts
Alcohol and drug abuse, sexual misconduct, truancy, ect.
Four patterns of parenting
o Cognitive and social development examined
o Found authoritative had the best cognitive outcome
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Document Summary

Traditional nuclear families: a family unit consisting of a wife/mother, a husband/father and their dependent child or children. Co-parenting: circumstance in which parents mutually support each- other function as a cooperative parenting team: effective co-parenting is difficult for couples experiencing marital discord and other life stresses. Extended family: a group of blood relatives from more than one nuclear family (a practice in which parents and their children live with or in close proximity to other relatives grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews . ) The family is a network of reciprocal relationships: direct effects. Influence of two family members on each other. A relationship between members that affects another member. The family is a social system: parents relationship parenting infant behaviour and development all interconnected. Characteristics of family system: constantly developing, embedded within larger culture. Single adults, later marriage: 90% eventually marry.

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