PSYC 2450 Lecture Notes - James Marcia, Social Cognition, Longitudinal Study

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Professor
Page:
of 16
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: CHAPTER 13
1
Development of the Self and Social Cognition
Self the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to
each individual
Social cognition thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings,
motives, and behaviours of themselves and other people
Development of the Self-Concept
Babies become distressed hearing the cries of another baby, yet not by their own
cries, which implies that they have a differentiation of self
The anticipate the arrival of their hands to their mouth and seem capable of
using proprioceptive feedback sensory information from the muscles,
tendons, and joints that help us locate the position of our body in space from
their own facial expressions to mimic their caregivers
Andrew Meltzoff the young infant has a body scheme that is present as a
psychological primitive right from the earliest phases of infancy
Margaret Mahler likens the newborn to “chick and egg”, there’s no reason to
differentiate the self from the surrounding environment
Self-Differentiation in Infancy
Most agree this can be seen by 2-3 months
Piaget during the first two months they repeat pleasurable acts centered on
their body
2 month old infants may have some limited sense of personal agency
recognition that one can be the cause of an event or understanding that they
are responsible for at least some of the events that fascinate them
Self-Recognition in Infancy
Once infants know that they exist independent of other entities, they are in a
position to find out who or what they are, the basis of self-concept
Expose infants to a visual representation of self and see how they respond
Marie Legerstee 5-month olds who viewed moving images of themselves and
an age-mate on video could discriminate their own image from that of their peer,
indicated by their preference to gaze at their peer’s face (which was novel and
interesting) rather than their own (familiar)
Infants often look in mirrors ample opportunity for them to match their own
movement-produced proprioceptive information with the actions in the mirror,
thereby discriminating this “self”
Infants become better at discriminating visual representations of themselves
and other people and to perceive others as potential social partners
9 month olds watched a video of themselves and an adult mimicking the same
actions
The infant was more interested in the adult performing the actions and was
more likely to engage with them like a playmate
Michael Lewis and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn studied the development of the self-
recognition by asking mothers to apply a spot of rouge to their infant’s nose and
then place the infant in front of a mirror
If they have self-recognition, they should notice the spot and wipe their nose
9-24 month olds were given the test
The young ones showed no self-recognition: treated the image in the mirror as if
it were someone else
Signs of self-recognition were observed among the 15-17 month olds but only
among the 18-24 month olds did the majority wipe their nose
Infants in nomadic tribes with no mirrors experience self-recognition at the
same age as other kids
Not until 3 ½ will they retrieve a sticker that has been placed on their heads if
their first glimpse of it comes after a 2-3 minute delay on videotape or in a
picture
2-3 year olds who have some self-recognition don’t go for it because their
concept of self is that of a present self and they don’t yet appreciate events that
occurred in the past have implications on them now
4-5 year olds quickly retrieve the sticker after a brief delay but not if the video is
depicts events that happened a week ago
They have developed the concept of extended self: they recognize that the self
is stable over time and that 1) events that happened recently have implications
for the present, but 2) the sticker they see a week later on film is not still on their
heads because this event happened to them a long time ago
Contributors to Self-Recognition
18-24 month olds recognize themselves the same age they internalize
sensorimotor schemes to form mental images
Older toddlers, on the verge of creating mental symbols, begin to notice
contingency between actions they see in the mirror and proprioceptive
information they can sense from their bodily movements, recognizing that the
person in the mirror doing what they’re doing is “me”
Once 3 ½-4 year olds begin to encode noteworthy experiences as
autobiographical memories, they clearly realize that the self is a stable entity and
that earlier events that they remember happened to them
Social experiences are of equal importance to developing self-recognition as
cognitive development
Gordon Gallup adolescent chimps can recognize themselves in a mirror as long
as they haven’t been reared in isolation
Social isolates react to their image as if they are seeing another animal
Sandra Pipp administered a test to 2 and 3 year olds assessing their
awareness of their name, gender, as well as tasks to assess self-recognition
Securely attached 2 year olds were outperforming their insecurely attached age-
mates and differences between secure and insecure 3 year olds were greater
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: CHAPTER 13
3
Parents contribute to self-concept by providing descriptive information, “you’re
a big girl” and by evaluating the child’s behaviour “that’s wrong Billy”
Talking about events help children organize their experiences into storyline
narratives and to recall them as events that have personal significance
These autobiographical memories help illustrate the sense of self as stable over
time, contributing to the growing sense of extended-self
Heidi Keller contrasted parenting styles and self-recognition achievement in
toddlers from three cultures that varied in parenting styles
Mothers from the three cultures did differ in the parenting styles with their 3
month olds
The Nso mothers stressed interdependence, the Greek mothers stressed
autonomy, and the Costa Rican mothers fell in between the two
At 18-20 months, the children whose mothers stressed interdependence were
not likely to recognize themselves in the rouge test, whereas the toddlers whose
mothers stressed autonomy were much more likely to recognize themselves
Social and Emotional Consequences of Self-Recognition
The growth of self-recognition and awareness of oneself paves the way for new
social interactions and emotional competencies
Toddlers become more outgoing and socially skilled
Early-emerging ability to share and intentions and cooperate with social
partners is so significant some see it as the foundation for human culture
2 year old self aware children partake in cooperative problem-solving activities
with social partners
They begin to recognize how people differ and begin to categorize themselves on
these dimensions the categorical self a person’s classification of self along
socially significant dimensions such as age and sex
Become aware of ethnic categories although are often wrong
Pro-white bias African-American preschoolers associate fewer positive
attributes to the colour black
May reflect early awareness of negative stereotypes about minorities
Who Am I?” Responses of Preschool Children
Developmentalists used to believe that the self-concepts of children were
concrete, physical, and nearly devoid of and psychological self-awareness
Rebecca Edner when 3 ½ - 5 year olds are asked to respond to contrasting
forced-choice statements that require fewer verbal skills than open-ended “Who
am I?” questions, they can quickly categorize themselves on psychological
dimensions such as sociability, athleticism, intelligence, etc.
Implies that they have rudimentary psychological conceptions of self long before
they can express this knowledge in trait-like terminology
Concepts of Self in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence

Document Summary

Self the combination of physical and psychological attributes that is unique to each individual. Social cognition thinking that people display about the thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviours of themselves and other people. Babies become distressed hearing the cries of another baby, yet not by their own cries, which implies that they have a differentiation of self. Andrew meltzoff the young infant has a body scheme that is present as a psychological primitive right from the earliest phases of infancy. Margaret mahler likens the newborn to chick and egg , there"s no reason to differentiate the self from the surrounding environment. Most agree this can be seen by 2-3 months. Piaget during the first two months they repeat pleasurable acts centered on their body. Once infants know that they exist independent of other entities, they are in a position to find out who or what they are, the basis of self-concept.