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Key Terms.docx

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Key Terms Sex difference: significant difference between men and women; can be anything, height, body type, personality. Gender: masculine and feminine, not biological. Gender stereo types: how men and women might or should differ; exaggeration of roles, not always true. Effect Size: d statistic – difference in standard deviation units; +/- .20 is small, .5 is medium and .8 is large; a large effect size does not necessarily have implications for any one person, it is a general statistic. Sex Differences in Personality Temperament in Children: Inhibitory control (controlling urge to act up in class): girls > boys Perceptual sensitivity: favours girls Surgency (like extraversion, being dominant/active): favours boys Negative affectivity (ability to feel anxious or depressed): no significant difference. The Big 5: Extra version – women are slightly more outgoing (gregariousness), d = -.15; men are slightly high on activity level, d = .09; men are moderately higher on assertiveness, d=.50. Agreeableness – women are higher on trusting, d = -.25; women are more tender-minded toward other individuals, d = .97; women smile more than men, d=.60; men are more physically aggressive (moderate to large d); men commit more violent crimes. Conscientiousness – women are slightly higher on order (wanting to have things more organized, d = -.13; small d doesn’t mean it has no meaning, can still affect individual situations. Neuroticism – men and women similar on impulsiveness, d = .06; women higher on anxiety and sadness, d = -.28 Sex Differences in Emotions: Positive and negative emotions – women higher in frequency/intensity in both positive (joy, affection) and negative (sadness and fear) Other Personality factors: Self-esteem – overall males score higher, d = .21; men higher in interest in casual sex and having more lifetime sex partners and sexual aggression; but other personality traits play a role here (hostility, low empathy and narcissism). Depression Women >> Men (2:1, esp. ages 18-44) - Women report more appetite symptoms - Women report crying more; men are more aggressive - Women more likely to seek help - Men lack social support and do not want to ask for help - Nervous activity (neuroticism) is more common in women; inactivity more common in men - Men more socially withdrawn and report more aches; women more hurt feeling/self esteem - Women have higher rates of rumination (dwelli
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