Sex difference: significant difference between men and women; can be anything, height, body type, personality.
Gender: masculine and feminine, not biological.
Gender stereo types: how men and women might or should differ; exaggeration of roles, not always true.
Effect Size: d statistic – difference in standard deviation units; +/- .20 is small, .5 is medium and .8 is large; a large effect
size does not necessarily have implications for any one person, it is a general statistic.
Sex Differences in Personality
Temperament in Children:
Inhibitory control (controlling urge to act up in class): girls > boys
Perceptual sensitivity: favours girls
Surgency (like extraversion, being dominant/active): favours boys
Negative affectivity (ability to feel anxious or depressed): no significant difference.
The Big 5:
Extra version – women are slightly more outgoing (gregariousness), d = -.15; men are slightly high on activity level, d =
.09; men are moderately higher on assertiveness, d=.50.
Agreeableness – women are higher on trusting, d = -.25; women are more tender-minded toward other individuals, d =
.97; women smile more than men, d=.60; men are more physically aggressive (moderate to large d); men commit more
Conscientiousness – women are slightly higher on order (wanting to have things more organized, d = -.13; small d
doesn’t mean it has no meaning, can still affect individual situations.
Neuroticism – men and women similar on impulsiveness, d = .06; women higher on anxiety and sadness, d = -.28
Sex Differences in Emotions:
Positive and negative emotions – women higher in frequency/intensity in both positive (joy, affection) and negative
(sadness and fear)
Other Personality factors:
Self-esteem – overall males score higher, d = .21; men higher in interest in casual sex and having more lifetime sex
partners and sexual aggression; but other personality traits play a role here (hostility, low empathy and narcissism).
Women >> Men (2:1, esp. ages 18-44)
- Women report more appetite symptoms
- Women report crying more; men are more aggressive
- Women more likely to seek help
- Men lack social support and do not want to ask for help
- Nervous activity (neuroticism) is more common in women; inactivity more common in men
- Men more socially withdrawn and report more aches; women more hurt feeling/self esteem
- Women have higher rates of rumination (dwelli