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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740

CHAPTER 13Emotion and PersonalityEmotions can be defined by their 3 components using the emotional feeling of fear as an example1Emotions have distinct subjective feelings or affects associated with themoAnxiety confusion panic2Emotions are accompanied by bodily changes mostly in the nervous system and these produce associated changes in breathing heart rate muscle tension blood chemistry and facial expressionoIncreased heart rate decreased blood flow to digestive system queasiness increased blood flow to legsarms3Emotions are accompanied by distinct action tendencies or increases in the probabilities of certain behavioursoFlee or flightPeople differ from each other in their emotional reactions even to the same events Issues in Emotion ResearchEMOTIONAL STATES VS EMOTIONAL TRAITSEmotional statesare transitory come and go have a specific cause and that cause typically originates outside of the person something happening in the environmentoex a woman is sad because her bike got stolen a man is angry because he was ripped offEmotional traits are patterns of emotional reactions that a person consistently experiences across a variety of life situationspattern is stable over time and characteristic for each person otraits are considered to be internal to the person and we think of them as causing people to behavefeel in certain ways CATEGORICAL VS DIMENSIONAL APPROACHES TO EMOTIONemotion researchers can be divided into two camps based on their answer to the question what is the best way to think about emotionsthe categorical approach states that emotions are best thought of as a small number of primary and distinct emotions otry to reduce the complexity of emotions by searching for the primary emotions that underlie the great variety of emotional termsoprimary emotions the irreducible set of emotions combinations of which result in the huge variety of experienced emotionsthe dimensions approach to understanding emotion has been based on empirical research rather than theoretical criteriaohave subject rate themselves on a wide variety of emotions then apply statistical techniques ex factor analysis to identify the basic dimensions underlying the ratings
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