WEEK 1- September 11, 2012
Mild types of deviance vandalism, protesting, shoplifting, trespassing, public
Medium types of deviance possession, theft, drug dealing,
Severe types of deviances murder, abduction, rape
Hagan’s Pyramid (1991)
Social Diversions: considered deviance and not criminal (tattoos, different coloured
hair)outside the norm but common
Social Deviations: less behaviours but more people offended. Can be harmful but a lot
Conflict Crimes: a lot of conflict whether or not some behaviors should be considered a
crime. mala prohibita (wrong by prohibition) (possessing illegal drugs)
Morality offenses (prostitution, drug use)
Easier and more likely to be enforced
Consensus Crimes: most visible and predatory crimes (ex. Murder, rape). Wrong/bad in
themselves. Considered a crime in every culture and place. mala in se
Defining Crime & Deviance
Cultural- different cultures have different ways of defining deviance
Deviance in one culture may not be deviance in another culture
Ex. In USA illegal to be topless, in Europe it is legal
Historical- the way crime and deviance is defined changes over time. What was legal
becomes illegal, or vise versa.
Ex. Cocaine used to be legal in coca cola
Suicide used to be illegal in Canada
Contextual- our ideas or our definition of crime is more related to the context. Behavior is
the same but the context matters on how it‟s interpreted.
Ex. Sports bar- bad call vs. wedding reception
Gender- depends on the sex of the person engaging in the behavior and what is
considered a deviance
Ex. Sex for girls was illegal
Guys can fight, but girls can‟t
Defining & Explaining Crime
1) Objectivist Approach
Individual- person A committed the crime because of A, B, C
o Seen as an objective fact
o We can explain why a person committed the crime because of their
environment, genetics, muscle
Consensus- majority agree what is right and wrong behavior. SOC 1500
o human behavior classified between normal and not normal
Causation- crimes caused by certain things in environment. When you understand
the cause you can find the solution.
2) Subjectivist/Conflict Approach
Label- someone has to determine that a behavior is criminal and then they label it
o Social construction of crime and creating rules and enforcing the norm
Power- those with power get to decide and to label those without power as
o Creating rules and law and enforcing the law, those powers don‟t have
o If it is criminal, it is criminal according to whom? Who is deciding the
behavior is criminal?
Conflict- conflict between those with power and those without.
Crime and deviance are two separate concepts
Some crimes can be deviant-speeding on the highway
Criminologist- someone who studies crime, criminals, and or criminal behavior.
They do research and analyze data
Criminalists- skilled investigators. Work in laboratories, technicians, collect crime
scene evidence and analyze them.
Criminal Justice Professionals- those who work in the field. (officers, judges,
Criminal Justice System
Policing- 77 000 people over the years number of female police officers increased
Courts- lowest number of employees
Corrections- policecourtcorrections (punishment) (provincial vs. federal)
Prison- two years or less is provincial (greater number of people). Two years or
more is federal.
We spend more money on policing
Corrections, courts, legal aid, and the prorsecutions
Models of Criminal Justice
Rights and Deterrence- protect the rights of citizens and decrease the crime so
Community- try and prevent crime in community and remove people that commit
crime in the community.
Punishment- we should punish all people that commit crimes
Due Process SOC 1500
Rights and conviction- legal rights of criminals must be protected. Enhance the
legal rights of an accused person. We want to prevent the conviction of innocent
Corrections- rehabilitation. Integrate you back into society.
Justice- fairness and equality for all persons. Emphasis is on legal guilt and
Canada-crime control model and due process model
o Components- violent crimes (physical violation to another person.
Robbery, murder, property crimes (breaking and entering, vandalism,
theft), traffic offenses (driving and killing someone), administrative
offenses (court order can‟t be on streets after 8pm, lie on the stand), drug
o Witnesses (who can be a witness)
o Legal defenses in court (why you‟re not guilty)
o Appeal process
o Sentences for each crime including the maximum
o Eligibility for parole
o Behaviors that we find a crime today were probably crimes before (newest
is drug offenses)
Three Forms of Law
Civil Law- governs contracts between individua