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SOC 1500 Week 1

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

SOC 1500 WEEK 1- September 11, 2012 Define Crime  Mild types of deviance  vandalism, protesting, shoplifting, trespassing, public intoxication  Medium types of deviance  possession, theft, drug dealing,  Severe types of deviances  murder, abduction, rape Hagan’s Pyramid (1991) Social Diversions: considered deviance and not criminal (tattoos, different coloured hair)outside the norm but common Social Deviations: less behaviours but more people offended. Can be harmful but a lot are harmless Conflict Crimes: a lot of conflict whether or not some behaviors should be considered a crime.  mala prohibita (wrong by prohibition) (possessing illegal drugs)  Morality offenses (prostitution, drug use)  Easier and more likely to be enforced Consensus Crimes: most visible and predatory crimes (ex. Murder, rape). Wrong/bad in themselves. Considered a crime in every culture and place.  mala in se Defining Crime & Deviance Cultural- different cultures have different ways of defining deviance  Deviance in one culture may not be deviance in another culture  Ex. In USA illegal to be topless, in Europe it is legal Historical- the way crime and deviance is defined changes over time. What was legal becomes illegal, or vise versa.  Ex. Cocaine used to be legal in coca cola  Suicide used to be illegal in Canada Contextual- our ideas or our definition of crime is more related to the context. Behavior is the same but the context matters on how it‟s interpreted.  Ex. Sports bar- bad call vs. wedding reception Gender- depends on the sex of the person engaging in the behavior and what is considered a deviance  Ex. Sex for girls was illegal  Guys can fight, but girls can‟t Defining & Explaining Crime 1) Objectivist Approach  Individual- person A committed the crime because of A, B, C o Seen as an objective fact o We can explain why a person committed the crime because of their environment, genetics, muscle  Consensus- majority agree what is right and wrong behavior. SOC 1500 o human behavior classified between normal and not normal  Causation- crimes caused by certain things in environment. When you understand the cause you can find the solution. 2) Subjectivist/Conflict Approach  Label- someone has to determine that a behavior is criminal and then they label it so o Social construction of crime and creating rules and enforcing the norm  Power- those with power get to decide and to label those without power as criminals o Creating rules and law and enforcing the law, those powers don‟t have those labels o If it is criminal, it is criminal according to whom? Who is deciding the behavior is criminal?  Conflict- conflict between those with power and those without. Crime and deviance are two separate concepts  Some crimes can be deviant-speeding on the highway Occupations  Criminologist- someone who studies crime, criminals, and or criminal behavior. They do research and analyze data  Criminalists- skilled investigators. Work in laboratories, technicians, collect crime scene evidence and analyze them.  Criminal Justice Professionals- those who work in the field. (officers, judges, defense lawyers) Criminal Justice System Policing- 77 000 people over the years number of female police officers increased Courts- lowest number of employees Corrections- policecourtcorrections (punishment) (provincial vs. federal)  Prison- two years or less is provincial (greater number of people). Two years or more is federal. Spending-Justice System  We spend more money on policing  Corrections, courts, legal aid, and the prorsecutions Models of Criminal Justice Crime Control  Rights and Deterrence- protect the rights of citizens and decrease the crime so harsher punishment  Community- try and prevent crime in community and remove people that commit crime in the community.  Punishment- we should punish all people that commit crimes Due Process SOC 1500  Rights and conviction- legal rights of criminals must be protected. Enhance the legal rights of an accused person. We want to prevent the conviction of innocent persons.  Corrections- rehabilitation. Integrate you back into society.  Justice- fairness and equality for all persons. Emphasis is on legal guilt and procedures.  Canada-crime control model and due process model Legal Definition  Legal Statute o Components- violent crimes (physical violation to another person. Robbery, murder, property crimes (breaking and entering, vandalism, theft), traffic offenses (driving and killing someone), administrative offenses (court order can‟t be on streets after 8pm, lie on the stand), drug offenses o Witnesses (who can be a witness) o Legal defenses in court (why you‟re not guilty) o Appeal process o Sentences for each crime including the maximum o Eligibility for parole  History o Behaviors that we find a crime today were probably crimes before (newest is drug offenses)  Basis Three Forms of Law  Civil Law- governs contracts between individua
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