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Lecture 3

SOC 1500 Lecture 3: Soc lecture 3

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SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

Thursday, September 24, 2015 Soc: Lecture 3 Sociological Explanations for explaining crime (objectivist) Social Structural Theories of Crime - Chicago School: Theorists who came up with it came from Chicago. Based on Human Ecology Model and inspired by biological of plants and environments (changes in this system). Looked at the way people move in and out of an urban city (Chicago). Concentric Zones— Zone 1 (best land, most expensive, centre of the city, commerce and industry); Zone 2- Transitional (next to the business core. Always in transition. Sharply eroded properties. Don’t maintain or fix any of the buildings. Rents very cheap. Inner city. Ethnic/ Religious ties); Zone 3 - Working class (working class, richer people); Residential (more expensive rent for apartments, better than downtown, much better lighting than zone 3); Zone 5- Commuter zone (bigger properties, rich) - Highest rates of crime were in zone 2. Social controls are weakened or severed in this zone. Disorganization in this zone. Policies -Policing- police officers in bad zones - Organization- more organization in the community - Education- Improving schools and education - Quality of life- increase rec centers, social services there. Criticisms 1) Class bias — assume classes are better. Assumes no crime exists when you move to the outside zones 2) Discrimination — if you place more police in one area, more arrests will be made in that area Functionalism Question — what causes deviance/crime? Main argument- no society is crime free. There is a function/service for crime which are manifests functions (those that are intended) Latent functions (those that are unintended, typically done informally. Sending people to prisons and they learn from other criminals and come out and learn how to do other crimes) Functions of Crime 1) Group solidarity — community standards are seriously violated and this outrage of violation and these people come together. Commonly happens in cases of child abductions or child murders 1 Thursday, September 24, 2015 2) Boundary setting— borders that clarify acceptable and unacceptable behaviour. See how far we can go before people see it as wrong 3) Reinforce conformity — when people do good things, we want to reward them for that. We see people who do the right thing then get rewarded for it. 4) Innovation (flexibility and change) — breaking the law can sometimes help or promote progress. Can help end war, help with civil rights movement Emile Durkheim -One of the founding fathers of criminology -Did an important study on suicide, suicide is not just individual/psychological. Suicide rates were different from place to place. Suicide also has a lot to do with religion. The catholic countries had lower suicide rates than the other places. Probably higher in protestant countries because suicide was seen as less of a problem in these religions than in catholicism. -ANOMIE- explains suicide and crime. Anomie is a state of normalessness. Lot of changes influence suicide. -Mechanical solidarity- happens in households that are more agriculutral. A lot of sameness and shared conditions. Very small scale societies. The group becomes higher than the individual. -Organic solidarity- a lot of difference between people. Mutual dependence among people. Complex division of labour. If you violate the rules, punishments less severe because the chance at risk for the group is less harmful Strain Theory/Anomie— Two concepts: GOALS (cultural) — 
 MEANS (institutionalized) — material wealths and possessions. American dream. Adaptation … Goals … Means ———— See chart online Problems (Criticisms) 1. Crime — How can you explain crime? Assumes Middle class and upper class have no crime — not true 2. Gender— Female opportunity is more blocked, their pay for same work is often less, prob
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