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SOC 1500 Nov 1 2011 Lecture Note (F11)

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SOC 1500
Alexander Shvarts

Hackler: Violent Crimes – Ch.15, Biological Theory – Ch.4, Psychological Theory – Ch.5 Schmalleger and Volk: Biological Theory – Ch.6, Psychological Theory – Ch.7 SOC 1500 Tuesday, November 1, 2011 LECTURE 6: Sources of Violent Crime War and the Creation of Violent Cultures • Dan Archer and Rosemary Gartner (1976): Wars contribute to violence. During major wars, crime rates are lower. After a war, there are factors that might lead to a reduction of violence, but the return of young males might increase violent crime. > Research examining whetheror not if government engages in wars, and after war people in that society to commit more crime?; which model explains what happens during • Archer and Gartner – two theoretical models explain the impact of war on homicide: 1. Catharsis model: Wars substitute public violence for private violence. Homicide would decrease during and after the war. > Homicide rates and violent crimes will decrease during and after war; Catharsis means what happens during was is you purge yourself of violence; if your gov. is fighting 100,000 people, what difference does it make if you kill just one person? 2. Legitimation of violence model: Social approval of violence as a way of solving problems reduces inhibitions against taking human life. Wars legitimate killing people. This model predicts increases in homicide in postwar societies. War and the Creation of Violent Cultures • Archer and Gartner – findings: > Governments engaged in war will be governments who will have more violence during and after war • Nations that saw more war showed the greatest postwar increase in homicide. Seventeen nations showed increase in homicide rates after the two world wars. The non-combatant nations showed more decreases in homicide than increases. Only the legitimation-of-violence model is consistent with the frequent and pervasive postwar homicide increases in combatant nations. Video  Scene from Columbine  Talks to executive from company that creates missiles  Doesn’t see a problem with government engaging in war; see war as aggression due to problems in society  Theory: If you live in a society that is engaging in war, eventually the rest of society will show violence Richard Tremblay: Developmental Crime Prevention • Richard Tremblay: Argues that efforts that help very young children and their parents to behave in a pro-social way prevent problems at a later time. Antisocial behavior at an early age is a precursor of delinquent behavior. > The Hackler: Violent Crimes – Ch.15, Biological Theory – Ch.4, Psychological Theory – Ch.5 Schmalleger and Volk: Biological Theory – Ch.6, Psychological Theory – Ch.7 best way to deal with youth crime is to invest $ in helping young children/parents to behave in social way; youth not properly socialized will become problem as they grow up • Young parents: If young parents had reasonable employment, had opportunities to further their education and to interact more effectively with their children, they would be less attracted to drugs and alcohol. • Tremblay and Craig (1995): Argue that money invested in early (e.g., preschool) prevention efforts with at-risk families will yield greater payoffs than money invested in later (e.g. adolescence) prevention efforts with the same families. > Better childhood early education; help families with financial needs – kids in turn not looked after peer groups = stay out of trouble The Reduction of Family Violence in Canada • Number of children killed by family members in 1999: Fell to its lowest level in 26 years. > Homicide more likely to occur among people you know • Families: Major source of serious violence. More likely to be assaulted by family member • Spousal violence between 1993 and 1999: Rates of spousal violence against women declined in most provinces. Declining rates but still large problem in Canada; why decline?: More support services; more socially acceptable to get divorce Police Responses to Domestic Violence • Laying charges against men accused of assaulting their spouses: Began in North America in the 1980s. • Arrests: Reduced the likelihood of further violence. > Arrest does in fact reduce the amount of violence/minimizes the abuse The Spouse Assault Replication Program • Spousal assault arrests: Resulted in fewer future assaults • Different method of dealing with domestic assault - community conferencing strategy: Emphasizes shaming, apology, and the reaffirmation of community values rather than punishment, and is followed by reintegration into the community. By contrast, typical court scene stigmatizes both the victim and the offender and reinforces denial by the offender. > Community conferencing strategies • McMahon and Pence (1995): Argue that there is a need for community involvement in domestic violence cases.
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