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Lecture One.docx

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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Michelle Dumas

January 8, 2014 Crime and Criminal Justice: Lecture One Mild Types of Deviance -social diversions that are most likely harmless such as lying -getting tattoos without parental consent Moderate Types of Deviance -behaviour that deviates from social norms -typically not against the law Severe Types of Deviance -deviance that tends to break the law Consensus Crimes -a high consensus in society that these behaviours are not tolerable -murder, rape, incest, theft to an extent -crimes that are considered and agreed upon to be predatory -mala in se – wrong in themselves Conflict Crimes -mala prohibita – wrong by prohibition -a law has been made to say that these offenses are wrong, but the public is most often split and is a matter of morals -conflict over whether or not these should be seen as illegal behaviours -marijuana, premarital sex, drug use, alcohol offenses, euthanasia Defining Crime and Deviance Cultural -when an action or behaviour differs across culture -it may be acceptable in one culture but is not acceptable in another -in Ontario in 1996 women were given the right to walk around topless, however in Texas this is considered illegal -the age at which it is legal to consume alcohol Historical -definitions of crime change over time -drugs that were legal are no longer legal (cocaine in Coca Cola) -it used to be illegal to commit suicide in Canada Contextual -it depends on the context, the audience or the circumstances -it could be unacceptable in one context but acceptable in another -usually is deviant -swearing and yelling at a bar while watching a hockey game versus doing these same actions at a wedding Gender -it used to be illegal for women to have premarital sex but not for men -young males getting into fights does not result in charges, but young woman being in conflict does Defining and Explaining Crime **Written Question on Midterm Objectivist Approach -The objectivist approach seeks to identify causes of conflict as they relate to social, political and structural factors -can study criminals through observation -people who commit crimes are different from people that do not commit crimes -focuses on criminal individuals and trying to explain why they are criminals and how they differ from other people -the majority agree what is right and what is wrong behaviour -people who do not commit crimes are good and people that do commit crimes are bad -what causes people to commit crimes (causation) -caused by events, the environment or genetics in an effort to find a solution -valid for looking at consensus crimes Subjectivist Approach -it is subjective to who is defining crime -based on perception, emotion and individual beliefs -who is being viewed or constructed as a criminal -who is labelling someone as criminal or deviant -someone comes up with the labels and the social norms that must be followed -people in power get to decide which behaviours are good and bad -those with power get to enforce and create the law and define what is criminal -they view crime as having conflict and there is no consensus in society about right and wrong behaviour -valid for looking at conflict crimes where there is no consensus for certain behaviours (prostitution, drug use) The Link – Deviance and Crime Deviant behaviour -typically behaviour that is seen outside of the norm Crime is seen as a violation of the law -seen in terms of breaking the law Sometimes you can be deviant without being a criminal -getting a tattoo is deviant but is not seen as criminal behaviour You can be violating a law, however can be participating in deviant behaviour -speeding on the 401, you are violating the law but are doing the same thing everyone else is doing and therefore the behaviour is not considered deviant Occupations Criminologists -they study crime and criminal behaviour and perhaps the law -these individuals study in terms of what can be crime or people whom are engaged in crime -researchers, masters degree, policy analyst Criminalists -a skilled investigator who works in the laboratory -they use science to analyze evidence found in a crime scene (fingerprints) Criminal Justice Professionals -people who work in the criminal justice system -detective, correction, probation office, judges, police office Employees of the Justice System -police are considered at the front lines of enforcing law We spend more money on policing than any other area Models of Criminal Justice Crime Control Model -focuses on protecting the rights of law abiding individuals -we want to deter people from doing crimes so harsher penalties are developed – longer sentences -protecting our communities from criminal activity -we want to punish offenders, anyone who commits a crime should be punished -we trust that punishments are fair and that the system is not flawed Due Process Model of Criminal Justice -the rights are not just on law abiding persons -everyone who is accused of a crime should be given rights -to prevent unfair or wrongful convictions -we want to increase peoples legal rights to prevent people from being accused of a crime they did not commit -if someone is wrongly convicted, officials can and do make mistake, but the mistakes can be corrected -individuals should be protected from the power of the state In Canada we use both models -outlined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms -we recognize that offenses should be punished but all persons are given rights Legal Definition Legal statute -criminal code outlines all offenses considered a crime and is done by different categories (property violations – vandalism, Violent Offenses – assault) -Court procedures, witnesses, which witnes
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