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Lecture 3

SOC*2070 Lecture Week 3

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SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

Monday, Jan 21, 2012 Explaining Deviance: Sociological Theories of Deviance Midterm Section 1: Multiple Choice - 20 questions multiple choice - each answer worth half a mark Section 2: Medium Length Answer - answer 2/3 questions each worth 5 marks - no more than 3/4 page for each Section 3: Short Essay - answer 1/3 questions - Theories of Deviance: An Introduction - Explaining Deviance: The Act - Positivist Theories - Functional Theories - Anomie Theory - Strain Theory - Differential Opportunity Theory - General Strain Theory - Status Frustration Theory - Learning Theories - Differential Association Theory - Neutralization Theory - Social Learning Theory - Social Control Theories - Social Bonds Theory - General Theory of Crime - Functionalism: The Normal and the Pathological - Social Strict and Anomie - Strain Theory - Differential Association - Control Theory Monday, Jan 21, 2012 Adler discusses Perspectives - the Biological and Psychological perspective - the Structural Perspective - the Cultural Perspective - the Interactionist Perspective - Various theories that fit into these different perspectives *Positivist Theories Tonight Theory and Practice - “there is nothing more practical than a good theory” - early 20th century - > biological theories of crime - mid-20th century -> social theories of criminal and non-criminal behaviour Theories of Deviance - the sociology of deviance utilizes: - general sociological theories (e.g. conflict) - specifically criminological theories (e.g. strain) - interdisciplinary theories (e.g. feminist) Which theory is “best”? - theories of deviance co-exist - some theories are more useful than others - depends upon the research question - each theory has its strength and weaknesses Objective-Subjective Continuum - those with more objective interests: - study with deviant act, person or trait - positivist theories - those with more subjective interests - study social construction and social typing - interpretive and critical theories Positivist Theories - Functionalist - Learning Monday, Jan 21, 2012 - Social Control Functionalist Theories - Durkheim’s theory of Anomie - Merton’s Strain Theory - Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory - Anger’s General Strain Theory - Cohen’s Theory of Status Frustration Durkheim’s Anomie Theory - Durkheim as a Structural Functionalist advanced the theory that society is a moral phenomenon - morals constrain our behaviour - young people are taught the rights and wrongs early in life - societies with high degrees of social integration (bonding) would increase the conform- ity of its members - manifest and latent functions - each of societies structures fill manifest and latent functions - manifest functions = intended and recognized (come to school to get a good educa- tion) - latent functions = unintended and unrecognized (school provides you with social net- works) Durkheim - certain level of deviance is functional: - increases social solidarity - helps determine moral boundaries - tests society’s boundaries - reduces societal tensions - deviance is normal - collective conscience of moral belief - outrage when norms are violated rooted in the collective conscience - this public response to deviance serves to remind people what is acceptable - normal rather than pathological - beyond a certain level, deviance is dysfunctional - structure of society causes deviance Monday, Jan 21, 2012 - 2 types of societies: 1. Mechanical Solidarity - people bonded together by their similarities, very personal, kin based, earlier societies 2. Organic Solidarity - people bonded together by differences that created interdepen- dence, interactions are impersonal - mechanical solidarity -> organic solidarity - rapid change creates anomie (normlessness) - social disintegration and anomie were more prevalent in modern society - deviance can be the result of the structure of society - rapid change can result in anomie (natural disaster) - deviance enforces the collective conscience of a group - e.g. the outcry after the inadequate government response to hurricane Katrina Merton’s Anomie and Strain Theories - structure of society contributes to deviance - modern society is characterized by institutionalized goals and legitimate means - unequal access to those legitimate opportunities - Anomie = goals emphasized more than means - “deinstitutionalization of means” - attaining the goals are more important than the means - anomie characterizes the north american society - Strain = normative social order creates unequal access to legitimate means - Merton extended Durkheim’s ideas into strain theory - culture dictates success goals for all but institutional access limited to certain classes - social structures exert a definite pressure upon some persons in society to engage in non conforming, rather than conforming conduct - actors follow the norms of society too much - anomie was conceptualized as 2 views alternate between our cultural goals and our means to attain the goals - the means are widely known (success, status, money) - social order releases a voice “I want” convincing us that we all need the products of commercialism - our desires are created - in contemporary north america, we have conflict between the culture (what people are taught to aspire to) and the social and economic structure (the opportunities they have to succeed) Monday, Jan 21, 2012 - our culture dictates success goals for citizens whereas institutional access is limited to middle and upper strata - because of the social structure, people have accepted societies goals but have done so in different means - 5 modes of adaptation to strain - Merton drew up a typology of different responses to goal attainment and legitimate vs illegitimate means of attaining those goals - examples given in class of Merton’s typology Conformity - accepting cultural values of success and the legitimate means or conven- tional means of obtaining them Innovation - emphasis on success but choosing to achieve in an illegal, illegitimate or deviant fashion Ritualism - the abandonment or scaling down of cultural goals of success and rapid so- cial mobility but abiding by institutionalized norms Retreatism - a rejection of both goals and institutionalized means - a retreat from the things society values Rebellion - a genuine transvaluation - dealing with dominant goals and means by over- throwing them - Merton’s anomie theory has had a major influence on social policy - expand access to economic opportunities thereby making the social structure more compatible with the cultural values Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory - Legitimate Opportunities + Illegitimate Opportunities = Deviance vs Conformity - nature of opportunities determines type of gang: criminal gangs, retreatist gangs, con- flict gangs - they suggest that not all disadvantaged persons have the same opportunity for partici- pating in illegitimate activities - three types of deviant opportunities: 1. Criminal: arise from access to deviant subcultures 2. Conflict: attract persons with propensity for violence 3. Retreatist: persons who seek to withdraw from society - such opportunities are affected by several factors: - neighborhoods - ethnicity - glass ceiling for women exists with men in leadership roles Monday, Jan 21, 2012 Agnew’s General Strain Theory - multiple causes of strain - strain + negative affect = deviance - strain + anger + high depression = internalized deviance (e.g. purging) - staring + anger + low depression = externalized deviance (e.g. crime) - experience strains - vicarious strains - anticipated strains - strains are most likely to cause crime when: - high in magnitude - unjust - create some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping - eliminating strains conductive to crime - removing individuals from strains conducive to crime - equipping individuals with the traits and skills to avoid strains conducive to crime Albert Cohen’s Statu
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