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Lecture 3

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SOC 2070
Linda Hunter

4/17/2013 9:21:00 PM POSITIVIST THEORIES: Functionalist Theories  Durkheim’s Anomie Theory  Merton’s Strain Theory  Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory  Agnew’s General Strain Theory  Cohen’s Status Frustration Theory Learning Theories Differential Association Theory Neutralization Theory Social Learning Theory Social Control Theories Social Bonds Theory General Theory of Crime ADLER  The Biological and Psychological Perspective  The Structural Perspective  The Cultural Perspective  The Interactionist Perspective  Early 20thcentury = biological theories of crime th  Mid-20 century = social theories of criminal/non-criminal deviance Sociology of Deviance utilizes  General sociological theories (conflict)  Specifically criminological theories (strain)  Interdisciplinary theories (feminist) Objective interests:  Study the deviant act, person, or trait  Positivist theories Subjective interests:  Study social construction & social typing  Interpretive and critical theories FUNCTIONALIST THEORIES  Durkheim’s ANOMIE theory o Structural Functionalist – society is a moral phenomenon o Manifest and latent functions o Certain level of deviance is functional:  Tests society’s boundaries, reduces societal tensions, increases social solidarity, helps determine moral boundaries o Mechanical solidarity – people bonded together by their similarities o Organic solidarity – people bonded together by differences that created interdependence o Rapid change creates anomie (normlessness) o Social disintegration and anomie were more prevalent in modern  Merton’s STRAIN theory o Structure of society contributes to deviance o Institutionalized goals and legitimate means o Unequal access to those legitimate opportunities o Anomie = goals emphasized more than means o Strain = normative social order creates unequal access to legitimate means o Culture dictates success goals for all but institutional access limited to certain classes o Social structures exert a definite pressure upon some persons in the society to engage in non conforming rather than conforming conduct o In contemporary North America, conflict between the culture and the social and economic structure. Our culture dictates success goals for citizens whereas institutional access is limited to middle and upper strata o 5 modes of adaptation to strain: CONFORMITY, INNOVATION, RITUALISM, RETREATISM, REBELLION  Cloward and Ohlin’s DIFFERENTIAL OPPORTUNITY theory o Legitimate opportunities + illegitimate opportunities = Deviance VS conformity o Nature of opportunities determines type of gang (criminal gang, retreatist
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