Sex refers to biological characteristics that distinguish females and males.
– Primary Sexual Characteristics are those biological distinctions between males and females related to
– Secondary Sexual Characteristics refer to physical distinctions between males and females that are not
directly connected with reproduction.
• Gender refers to the social and cultural characteristics that a society considers proper for its males and
females (i.e., masculinity and femininity).
• Gender Roles refers to roles and other expected behaviors that a society links to sex.
• Gender Identity refers to traits that females and males – guided by their culture – incorporate into
• Patriarchy – a form of social organization in which males dominate females through male control of
cultural, political, and economic structures
• Sexism refers to the belief that one sex is innately superior to the other.
• Androgyny – the possession of both mas