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Lecture 2

Week 2 Lec Notes 2700.docx

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SOC 2700
Scott Brandon

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Week 2: History of Crime, part one 1. Three types of Crime Explanation 1. External forces: nature (i.e. weather: storms) , cosmology (i.e. solar eclipse, position of planets, stars, type of moon), and demonology (supernatural causes: possession, witch craft)  Happens beyond their will 2. Internal causes : psychological (character flaw), physiological (physical flaw), genetics (passed down by parents)  Can someone be cured? (ex: resessivegene therapy) 3. Group association 2. The objective-subjective debate o Objective: behaviour is real (can be measured – prostitution, how are cops, pimps involved?) o Subjective: behaviour is constructed 3. The Classical School of Criminology (1680-1800) o Tied to the enlightenment period (ideas of separate of church, things like personal rights, etc.) o Role of hedonism (self-interest) o Importance of free will o Social contract o Role of punishment o Utilitarianism (greatest good) (comes out of the enlightenment period, punishment should be for the “greatest good of the greatest number”) o Philosophes (Voltaire, Arouet, Hobbes, Kant and Hume) 4. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) A) Book: “On Crimes and Punishments” B) Classification of crimes: high treason, personal security, and public tranquility C) Measure of crime: social harm D) Punishment and the right to punish - Law - Authority of judges E) Evidence and forms of judgment F) Punishment as a deterrent - Promptness - Severity - Certainty G) The death penalty: potential problems H) Other ideas 5. Jeremy Bentham (1748 – 1832) Economics, history, philosophy Classical theory Wealthy background London A) Book: “Principles of Morals and Legislation” B) Similarities with Becca
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