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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 2700
Professor
Norman Dubeski
Semester
Fall

Description
Question 1 Human Nature  Thomas Hobbes: Humans are born badly, and the only way to keep them from doing bad is to have rules and a social contract.  Cesare Lombroso: humans are born criminals – we have original sin “Origional Sin” Example 1. Park hurt Prison, Britain, C-Wing  Patrick ( inmate) says that both is parents served time, and that it is just naturally in him to be in jail, its in his heritance.  Danny – robbed and murdered people, through personal things they said- Dr. asks if he thinks its in his blood ? – he replies, well my father has always been a violent person, I knew that I have in my personality that would kill- he wanted to know how it felt to have the power over another human being – as he got older it was stuck more and more. I thought that im born evil – he just gets pleasure in hurting people for no reason Environment  Andre Guerry and Adolphe Quetlelet argue that crime happens from those who are brought up in low economy families who want more  John Locke and Tabula Rosa – People are born with a blank slate – their experiences are what shape them  Karl Marx- the conflict struggle between social classes. – depends on where you grow up  Strain theory: people are unable to support themselves and have to resort to other means “Origional Sin” Example  John McVicar was a criminal and from his perspective, he chose to be one – the circumstances he found himself in made him commit crime – he grew up in a sub culture – in crime for most od his teens.  It became an issue when his son was following the same path - he says that yes he has the same genes as his father but hes also growing up in the same area, having to deal with the same circumstances o Could there ever be a gene for behavior used as an excuses?  NO, unless this gene so determined behavior that it over road free will. …  many researchers believe that crime is a part of human nature  Cesare Lombroso “theory of a criminal man” o Crime is part of who we are o How we look and what gender we are shows what crime we will commit. o People are born criminal o Lombroso’s theory is assuming a man or woman is criminal because they have a tattoo  The idea that we are born criminal also ties into the evolutionary theory and “survival of the fittest” o As a race we do what e need to do to survive  Facial features born criminal theory was developed by John Lataver. o He proposed that certain facial features such as beard or pointy nose make people look criminal o If they have certain feature they are assumed to be bad people Question 2 Biological Theories of Crime Physical Appearance  The earliest biological theories in criminology emphasized physical appearance as the distinguishing mark of a criminal  This even dates back to the ancient Greek times with Socrates, and travels several years later  Johan Lavater and Physiognomy – the relationship between facial features and human conduct  Joseph Gall and Phrenology- the relationship between the exterior brain and the different inner parts of the brain.  Gustave Le Bon and Craniology- the relationship between the skull size and shape in relation to being a criminal.  William Sheldon – The study of different body types. o People start off as embryos, and as we grow we develop into one of three body types.  Ceasare Lombroso and the “ Born Criminal” o Expanded on these thoughts to the whole body in one o Relied on Darwin’s theory of Evolution being that some people are biological throwbacks to an earlier evolutionary stage. o Lombroso called these people Atavistic criminals – criminals that are less evolved then other people Heredity Family Studies  Children tend to resemble their parents in appearance, mannerisms, and disposition.  Goring did several studies and found that there was a high correlation between the length of imprisonment of parents and their children o The only problem with this is they tried to eliminate the environment Twin and Adoption studies  To include the effects of the environment, these types of studies were created.  The difference in identical twins cannot be explained through heredity because they are genetically identical. Neurotransmitters  Controls your nerve impluses Example on Hereditary from “ Original Sin”  Dr. Han Brunner – women has family past of crime and rape - has a son that raped his sister then killed a guard o found out that the crime was in males but passed down through mothers. For this, they checked the X chromozone to see if there was an area that had this gene o Found that the crime gene is linked with MAOA – nerve impulses in the brain o If this gene is damaged, you have uncontrolabe nerve impluses – this changes the chemistry in the brain, which changes the way we communicate with one another and pushes someone to rage Psychological theories of Crime Intelligence  A low intelligence is most commonly used when discussing criminal behavior Eugenics – Francis Galton ( are people well-born)  Alfred Binet and mental age o Each child who took the test receives a mental
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