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Lecture 3

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ZOO 2090
Fred Laberge

Lecture 3- biological design 10/22/2013 7:55:00 PM The 4 Physical factors 1. Size  surface cube law= If you double the size of an object, you increase the surface area four times and you increase the volume it holds 8 times ** know the relationship between small animal (higher metabolism)  measured as consumption of O2 increasing mass, reduces O2 consumption  because larger animals have organ systems that are more efficient bones have to be equally proportionate 2. allomentry- describes the changes in shape that accompany changes in size, i.e., all parts of the body are not growing at the same rate isometry- where there is proportional growth/change between all structures 3. Force  basic concepts: length, time, and mass  mass= property of matter  force= effect of body on another thru mass + acceleration *vector :  measurements that have magnitude and direction. Some muscles are built upon this principle  Second law of motion (Newton) states F = ma, where m is mass and a the acceleration experienced by an object Lever:  Muscles generate forces and skeleton applies these forces. This can be represented by torques and levers  Torque- force acting at a distance from fulcrum Stability  Sprawled limbs o Lizards: very stable, lots of force, adducter muscles needed, movement costly  Pendulous limbs o Dinosaurs + mammals: not stable, less force needed, rapid/efficient movement possible 4. Environment- land  Drag: main force o caused by the need to push fluid aside o described by the Reynolds number; a dimensionless number affected by flui
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