Main difference – B9 usually does not metastasize, malignant has the capacity to metastasize.
Exception: B9 tumor that metastasize: invasive mole (metastasize to lungs, but goes away).
a) MC skin cancer INVADES but does not metastasize: basal cell carcinoma.
b) Uterus: leiomyoma; MC B9 tumor in woman is MC located in which organ? Uterus – it’s a
leiomyoma; tumor of smooth muscle!
c) Fibroids – smooth muscle; become very hard
d) MC B9 tumor in male (yellow) = lipoma
e) B9 tumor of glands = adenomas (ie adrenal adenoma – thin adrenal cortex b/c it is functional;
it could be making cortisol, therefore suppressing ACTH, and the fasiculata and reticularis would
undergo ATROPHY…leads to Cushing’s. If tumor secreting mineralocorticoids – it is Conn’s
syndrome, causing atrophy of the zone glomerulosa (GFR – salty sweet sex)
f) Tubular adenoma = MC precursor lesion for colon cancer (looks like strawberry on a stick)
Carcinoma vs. sarcoma
1. Carcinoma – malignancy of epithelial tissue (3 epithelial tissues – squamous, glandular, and
a) Squamous carcinoma – how to recognize? Little swirls of increased redness (bright red)
called squamous pearls;
b) Glandular carcinoma – Round glands, with something in the middle = adenocarcinoma
c) Transitional cell carcinoma – from bladder, ureter, renal pelvis (from genital urinary tract)
– all with transitional epithelium
Therefore 3 carcinomas = squamous, adenocarcinoma, and transitional cell carcinomas.
d) Example: Malignant melanoma – first step in management? Excision (b9 version =
nevus), both are derived from melanocytes. This is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the
USA, not MC. They are S-100 Ag “+” tumors – aput tumors
e) Aput Tumors: S-100 Ag “+” tumors – aput tumors; aput is precursor uptake decarboxylation, meaning
that they are of neurose