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Lecture 18

BIOL 1000 Lecture 18: Lecture 18
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOL 1000
Professor
Kevin G.Scott
Semester
Fall

Description
o982 Cells expend energy in the active transport of a solute Active transport = a cell must expend energy to move a solute against its concentration gradient  o Across a membrane towards the side where the solute is more concentrated Energy molecule ATP directly/indirectly supplies the energy for most active transport  1. Solute molecules on cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane attach to specific binding sites on the  transport protein 2. ATP transfers a phosphate group to the transport protein  3. Causes the protein to change shape in a way that the solute is released on the other side of the  membrane 4. Phosphate group detaches and transport protein returns to original shape Active transport allows a cell to maintain internal concentrations of small molecules/ions that are different from concentrations in its surroundings  + + o Inside of animal cell has higher concentration of K and lower concentration of Na than the solution outside the cell  o 70% of the brains energy consumption is accounted for by continuously operating the sodium potassium pump 5.9 Cells transform energy as they perform work Forms of energy: o Energy = the capacity to cause change or perform work o Kinetic energy = energy of motion Heat/thermal energy = type of kinetic energy associated with random movements of atoms/molecules o Light is also a type of kinetic energy – powers photosynthesis o Potential energy = energy that matter poss
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