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BIOL 1000 (60)
Lecture 21

BIOL 1000 Lecture 21: Lecture 21
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3 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1000
Professor
Kevin G.Scott

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o|82 4. The enzyme releases the products and emerges unchanged from the reaction  For every enzyme, there are optimal conditions under which it is most effective (e.g. temperature) o Enzyme’s optimal temperature produces highest rate of contact between reactant molecules and enzyme’s activation site o Higher temperatures denature the enzyme (change shape & destroys function) Most human enzymes work best at 35-40 degrees Celsius  Close to normal body temperature of 37 degrees Thermophilic bacteria contain enzymes with optimal temperatures of 77 degrees Celsius Optimal pH for enzymes is near neutrality (6-8) Exceptions: pepsin works best as pH of 2 Cofactors = non-protein helpers that bind to active site of an enzyme and function in catalysis Coenzyme = name for cofactor when it is an organic molecule Many vitamins function as coenzymes or as raw materials that make coenzymes Folic acid is a coenzyme for many enzymes involved in synthesis of nucleic acids Cells must tightly control when and where its various enzymes are active Does so by switching on/off genes that encode specific enzymes Or by regulating the activity of enzymes once they are made Enzyme inhibitors can regulate enzyme activity in a cell Inhibitor = a chemical that interferes with an enzyme’s activity Some inhibitors resemble the enzymes normal substrate Compete for entry to activation site Co
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