Class Notes (809,906)
Canada (493,853)
BIOL 1010 (75)
Lecture 1

BIOL 1010 Lecture 1: Lecture 1

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Manitoba
Biological Sciences
BIOL 1010
Emily A.Mc Kinnon

Bio 1010 BIOL 1010 CHAPTER NOTES UNIT 0 CHAPTER 2- chemical basis of life 2.1) Organisms are composed of elements, in combinations called compounds Everything living or not, if it takes up space and has mass, is made of MATTER Matter on earth is in 3 states: solid, liquid, gas All types of matter as diverse as rocks, water, air, and humans are all composed of chemical elements An element is a substance that cannot be broken down to another substance by ordinary chemical means 92 elements in nature ex) gold, copper, carbon and oxygen also a few dozen synthetic elements each element has a symbol, the 1 or 2 of its English, Latin or German name ex Na (latin word natrium), O ( English for oxygen ) next we have COMPOUNDS (substance made of two or more diff elements combined in a fixed ratio) compounds are much more common than pure elements few elements exist in pure state in nature most compounds made of only 2 elements ( table salt, NaCl ), has equal parts of element sodium, and chloride pure sodium is a metal, and pure chloride is a poisonous gas but chemically combined they are edible. Elements hydrogen and oxygen are gases, but combined in a ratio 2:1 they form the most abundant compound on earth – water (H2O) A compound has characteristics different from those of its elements Most compounds in living organisms have at least 3-4 elements Ex.) sugar (made of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen) o Proteins = carbon+hydrogen+oxygen+nitrogen+sulfur Diff arrangements of the atoms of these elements give rise to the unique properties of each compound 25 essential elements – 4 of these: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen make up 96% of the weight of the human body these 4 are the main ingredients of biological molecules such as proteins, sugars, and fats calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine & magnesium account for most of the remaining 4%. o They are involved in important functions such as bone formation (calcium & phosphorus), nerve signalling (potassium, sodium, calcium & chlorine o Trace elements are important, but only in small quantities 2.2) Trace elements are common additives to food and water Some trace elements like iron(Fe) are needed by all forms of life Iron makes up only 0.004% of your body weight but is vital for energy processing and for transporting oxygen in your blood Other trace elements like iodine(I) are required only by certain species Only need tiny amount of iodine per day(0.15mg) Iodine is an essential ingredient of a hormone made by the thyroid gland, which is in the neck Iodine deficiency causes thyroid gland to grow to abnormal size (called goiter) o It is also linked to mental retardation Iodine has been added to table salt and has reduced the iodine deficiency in many countries Unfortunately, iodine salt not available everywhere, and 2 billion people worldwide have insufficient iodine intake Seafood, kelp, strawberries and dark leafy greens are good natural sources o78P Bio 1010 Deficiencies often found in inland regions, especially areas where the soil is lacking iodine Also can happen to people who consume excessive amounts of highly processed food (which often use non- iodized salt) and people who have low salt diets intended to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease Iodine is just one example of a trace element added to food or water to improve health For over 50 years the dental associations have supported fluoridation of community drinking water as a public health measure - Fluoride is a form of fluorine (F) an element in earth’s crust that is found in small amounts in all water sources - fluoride is added to water treatment processes to raise levels to a concentration that can reduce tooth decay, if you drink mostly bottled water your fluoride intake may be reduced, but now some bottled water has fluoride too - it is also added to dental products, like toothpaste and mouthwash chemicals are added to food to help preserve it, make more nutritious, or simply make it look better iron is also another trace element commonly added to foods - iron added to cereal by crushing the cereal and then stirring a magnet thru it nutrition facts label lists numerous vitamins that are added to improve the nutritional value of the food - vitamins consist of more than one element and thus are examples of compounds 2.3) Atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons each element consists of one kind of atom, which is diff from the atoms of other elements an atom (Greek- indivisible) is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element o atoms are so small, that it would take a million of them to stretch across the period printed at the end of this sentence. SUBATOMIC PARTICLES Physicists have split the atom into 100 types of subatomic particles But only 3 are relevant - A PROTON is a subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge (+) An ELECTRON is a subatomic particle with a single negative charge (-) A NEUTRON is electrically neutral (has no charge) Ex.) helium the “lighter than air” gas that makes balloons rise It has 2 protons (+) and 2 neutrons tightly packed in the atoms central core called the NUCLEUS o It has 2 electrons which move around the nucleus at nearly the speed of
More Less

Related notes for BIOL 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.