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Lecture 1

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1010
Joy Stacey

Lecture 1 Ecosystem: Living + Nonliving organisms in environment Community: Organisms in ecosystem Population: individuals of a species in an area Characteristics of Life 1. Order 2. Response to Environment 3. Regulation 4. Energy Processing 5. Growth and Development 6. Reproduction 7. Evolutionary Adaptation - Traits allow organisms to live + reproduce Adaptations - Inherited traits - Occur at multiple levels of organization (cell, organ, etc.) in same animal - In certain environment Structural/Anatomical - Physical characteristics - Ex. Hummingbird beak for nectar feeding Behavioral - Migration Biochemical - Presence of certain molecules - Ex. Producing antifreeze proteins and venom Physiological - Functioning of organ systems - Ex. Diving mammals slow pulse and restricting blood flow to vital areas Seals Adaptations for Diving - Make air holes in ice - Body shape, nostrils, blubber – anatomical - Blood shunted to vital organs – physiological - Amount/structure of myoglobin (delivers oxygen to muscle) – biochemical Evolution – Unifying Theme of Biology Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975): Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Darwin • Sailed on the Beagle studied diversity and the ways species suited their environment • Descent with modification (as descendants of ancestor moved they formed modifications that fit the way of life) • Natural selection (1859) Concurrent with Advances in Geology • Age of earth • Fossils Natural Selection • Heritable traits passed from parents • Population produces more offspring than can survive • Cod larvae 1/ 1 million survive until adulthood • Individuals with traits suited for environment have high fitness • Long term changes in organisms (accumulation of differences over time) Fitness • Contribution to next generation (# of fertile offspring produced) • Adaptation increases fitness Inclusive Fitness Traits benefit more distant relatives Sources of Genetic Variation 1. Sexual Reproduction 2. Mutation (Toxins, radiation, errors in transcription) 3. Natural Selection Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection 1. Direct Observation of Selection on Shorter Scales Artificial Selection: Selective breeding/ human intervention Ex. Pesticide application Mosquitos go from 4% resistance to DDT to 77% in 1 year Resistant = Not killed within an hour of DDT treatment Field Observations Soapberry bugs beak length evolves to fit in fruit Flat podded gold
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